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Linearna Algebra

Linearna Algebra

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Published by Strano Tijelo

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Published by: Strano Tijelo on Dec 18, 2011
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3c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61
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31000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000strana Trigonometrijski oblik kompleksnog braja --------------30 ogaritmi
----------------------------------------------------------31 !peracije sa logari tmi ma -----------------------------------31 incarne jednacine i sistemi linearni" jedna#ina --------32 inearna
jedna#ina -------------------------------------------32 $istem linearni" jednacina sa d%ije nepo&nate-----------32 'etode l~jesavanja sistema jednacina ---------------------33 (isk)sija
rjesenja sistema od d%ije lineame jednacine -34 $istem od tri jednacine sa tri nepo&nate ------------------35 inearna f)nkcija -------------------------------------------------36 *%adratne j
ednacine --------------------------------------------38 (isk)sija rjesenja k%adratne jednacine -----------------~-38 +i et -o%a pra %ila ----------------------------------------------39 ,asta % -j
anje k%adratnog trinoma --------------------------39 (isk)sija 0 rjesenjima k%adratne jednacine--------------39 * %adratna f)nkcija ----------------------------------------------40 .olo&aj n)le
k%adratne f)nkcije prema datom ra&mak) 41 /0 cdna#ine %i$eg reda ---------------------------------------------43 ' a tematicka ind ) kcij a -----------------------------------------45
1ritmeticki i gcomctrijski ni&o%i -----------------------------46 1ri tmeti cki ni&------------------------------------------------46 2eometrij ski ni &----------------------------------------------47
3eskonacni geometrij ski red -------------------------------47 3inomni obra&ac -------------------------------------------------48 *o m binatorika ---------------------------------------------------49
strana +j ero%atnoca ------------------------------------------------------50
24!'4T,501---------------------------------------------------51 Tacka6 pra%a i ra%an ) prostor) ----------------------------5 1 7gl o%i ---------------------------------------------------------89 2
*r)&nica6 )glo%i kr)&nice ----------------------------------53 'jerenje )glo%a ----------------------------------------------54 Uglo%i )& transfer&al ) ---------------------------------------55
7glo%i mnogo)gla6 &bir )n)trasnj i" j spoljasnji" -------56 7 glo%i na kr)&nici -------------------------------------------57
'nogo)olo%i ----------------------------------------------/--------~-7
b
~rougao --------------------------------------------------------57 #et%ero ) gao --------------------------------------------------58 Tangentni i teti %ni mnogo)gao ----------------------------60
3roj dij agonala mnogo)gla ---------------------------------61 !dnos i&med) stranica tro)gla -----------------------------61 .od)datnost tra)gl o%a ---------------------------------------61
$licnost tro)glo%a :mnogo)glo%a9 ------------------------62 *r)&nica i ")g -----------------------------------------------63
24!'4T,50$*1 T5041 :po%rsine i &apremine9 -----64
.ri&ma6 kocka6 k%adar ---------------------------------------64 .iramida6 &ar)bljena piramidf ------------------------------64 +aljak6 siplji %aljak
------------------------------------------65 *)pa6 &ar)b lj ena k) pa ---------------------------------------65 opta6 dijelo%j lopte -----------------------------------------66 Tor)s
-----------------------------------------------------------67
5racionalne jednacine i nejedna#ine -------------------------68
555 1-1
strana
4ksponencijalna f)nkcija ---------------------------------------69
4ksponencijalne jednacine i nejednacine------~----------70
-ogaritamska f)nkcija------------------------------------------70
ogaritamske jednacine -------------------------------------71 ogaritamske nejedna#ine ----------------------------------72
T,52!;0 '4T,501-------------------------------------------73
(efinicija trigonometrijski" f)nkcija no/ pra%o)glom troll glu ---------------------------------------------------------73 Trig~nometrijska krll&nica-----------------------------------74 $%odenje na pr%i
k%adrant ----------------------------------74 + rijednosti trigonometrijski" f)nkcija --------------------75 +e&a i&medll trigonometrijski" f)nkcija istog )gla -----76 1dicione teoreme
--------------------------------------------77 Trigonometrijske f)nkcije cl%ostr)kog )gla ---------------77 Trigonometrijske f)nkcije polo%icnog )gla -------------77
I&ra&a%anj e preko tga 1
-
tg-
a
-------------------------------<
-8
2
Transformacija &bira i ra&like ) proi&%od i obrn)to ----78
=)nkcije %iseslr)ki" )glo%a --------------------------------79
,jesa%anje pra%o)glog tro)gla------------------------------80
$in)sna teorcma ----------------------------------------------81
*osin)sna teorema-------------------------------------------81
Tangensna teorema ------------------------------------------82
7glo%i tro) :0 la ------------------------------------------------83
~ b
.ol)precnik opisane i )pisane kr)&nice ------------------83 .o%rsina tro)gla ----------------------------------------/>-----84 2rafici trigonomctrijski" f)nkcij a -------------------------85 Trigonometrij
ske j ednacine---------------------------------86
$ferna trigonometrija -------------------------------------------87
? strana
1;15T@e*1 24!'4T,5J1 ------------------------>>>>>> 89
7 daljenost d%ije tacke -------------------------------->>>>>>> 89
*oordinate tacke koja dijeli d)& --------------------------> 90
*oordinate sredista d)&i -------------------------------->>>> 90
*oordinate te&ista tro)gla ------------------------------>>>> 90
.o%rsina tro)gla --------------------------------------->>>>>>> 90
.ra%a i jednacine pra%e---------------->>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 91
.ra%a kro& jedn) tack) ------------------------------>>>>>>>> 92
.ra%a kro& d%ije tacke ------------------------------>>>>>>>>> 92
7 gao i&med) d%ije pra%e --------------------------->>>>>>>> 93
7slo% paralelnosti d%ije pra%e -------------------------->>> 93
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6313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e310000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001/ / -d -
$ 081 !*olmtost0 %i0e pra%e------------------->>>>>>>>>>>> 93 7daljenost tacke od pra%e ----------------------------->>>>> 93 7&ajamni polo&aj d%ije pra%e -------------------------------94
0ednacina simetrale )gla ------------------------------>>>>>> 94
*,7A;5#1 --------------------------------------------->>>>>>>>>> 95
lednacina kr)&nice sa centrom ) is"oclist) ---------------9S lednacina kr)&nice sa centrom ) tacki $:p6B9------------95 Tangenta kr)&n ice ------------------------------------->>>>>> 95 7slo%
tangenci onalnosti ------------------------------>>>>>/>> 96 .alama jednacina kr)&nice ----------------------------->>>>> 96 .arametarska jednacina kr)&nice --------------------------96
4Iipsa -------------------------------------------------->>>>>>>>>>>>> 97
Jednacina tangente j normalc eiipse -------------------->>> 99 U slo% tangencionalnosti ---------------------------->>>>>>>>> 99 4lipsa sa centrom ) tacki ':c6d9 ----------------------->>> 99
.o%rsina elipse --------------------------------------->>>>>> 100
Ciperbola --------------------------------------------->>>>>>>>>>> 100
+ +5
strana 1simptote "iperbole --------~------------------------------102 7sloD tangencionalnosti -----------------------------------102
0ednacina tangente i normale-----------------------------102
.arabo5a ----------------------------------------------------------102
7 slo% tangencionalnosti-----------------------------------104 0ednacina tangente i normale-----------------------------104 .o%rsina odsj ecka parabole -------------------------------104
+4*T!,$*5 ,1#7; ---------------------------------------105
!peraci je sa %ektorima ------------------------------------106 ,a&lagEnje %ektora na komponente ---------------------107 +ektori ) koordinatnom sistem) -------------------------109 inearna
&a%isnost %ektora -------------------------------110 $kalarni proi&%od el%a %ektora ---------------------------113 +ektorski nroi&%od d%a %ektora -------------------------115 'jeso%iti
~roizvoc! tri %ektora ---------------------------116
1;15T5#*1 24!'4T,501 7 .,!$T!,7--------1l8
,astojanje d%ije tacke ) prostor) ------------------------118
o 8% °
119
*oordinate sred5sta d7Al ----------------------------------?-/
.o%rsina tro)gla --------------------------------------------119
Aapremina tetraedra ) prostor) ---------------------------119
,a%an ) prostor) ----------------------------------------------120
0ednacina ra%ni ) prostor) --------------------------------120 7slo% paralelnosti i okomitosti d%ije ra%ni-------------121 $cgmentni obli k jedna#ine ra%ni -------------------------121 /1ednacina
ra%ni kro& jedn) taek)6 kro& tri tacke-------121 .arametarske jednacine ra%ni ----------------------------122 ,astojanje date tacke od ra%ni ------------------------?--122 +55
strana
7 gao i&med) d%ije ra%ni ---------------------->>>>>>>>>>>> 122 .resj ek tri ra%ni ) j ednoj tacki ------------------>>>>>>>>> 122
.ra%a ) prostor) ---------------------------------->>>>>>>>>>>>> 123
.arametarske jednacine pra%e --------------------->>>>>>> 123 0ednacina pra%e kro& d%ije tacke ------------------>>>>>> 123 7 gao i&med) d%ije pra%e ---------------------->>>>>>>>>>> 124
,41;1 =7;*#501 ,41;4 .,!'04;05+4 >> 125 Aada%anje f)nkcije--o 125
--->>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
;)la f)nkcije -------------------------~----------->>>o 125 !sobine f)nkcij e ------------------------------->>>>>>>>>>>> 126 5n%er&ne f)nk cij e ---------------------------->>>>>> >>>>>>>>>
129
5n%er&ne f)nkcije trigonornetrijski" f)nkcija ------>>>>> 130
!sno%ni odnos i&meci) ciklometrijski" f)nkcija --->>> 133
2ranicne %rijednosti f)nkcij a ---------------------->>>>>>>>> 135
.ra%ila &a rac)nanje sa granicnim %rijednostima---->> 135
; eki primjeri granicni" %rijednosti ------------->>>>>>>>> 136
;eprekidnost f)nkcije -------------------------->>>>>>>>>>> 137
1simptote kri%i" iinija ) ra%ni --------------------->>>>>>>>>> 138
~ I v
(7 4,4;# 01;5 ,1#7;--------->>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 140
l&%odi -geometrijsko &nacenje ---------------------->>>>>>>>> 140
!sno%na pra%i la i&%oda ------------------------->>>>>>>>>> 141 Tabela i&%oda osno%ni" f)nkcija ---------------->>>>>>>> 142 5&%od slo&enc f)nkcij e ---------------------------->>>>>>>> 143
5&%oel impl icitne f)nkcije -------------------->>>>>>>>>>>>> 144 (i ferencij a0 f)nkcije -------------------------->>>>>>>>>>>>> 145 .rimjena i&%oda ) fi&ici --------------------------->>>>>>>>
146
+555
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/
/
.rirodan broj je djelji% s
a
2 ako samo ak
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m
)
0e ci18ra
jedinica jedna od cifara 02646668/
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.rirodan broj je cijelji% s
a
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samo
ak
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0e cifra
jeciinica 0 iii 5.
Il
.rirodan broj je djelji% sa 3 ako i samo ako mll je &bir cifara djelji% sa 3/ :;pr/ broj 207 je dje0ji% sa 36 jer rn) je &bir cifara 2F0F7G9 i 9 je dje0ji%o sa 39
II
.rirodan broj je djelji% sa 9 ako i samo ako m) je &bir cifara dje0ji% sa 9/ // .rirodan broj je djelji% sa 4 ako i samo ako m) je d%ocifreni &a%rsetak djelji % sa 4/ :; pr/ broje%i
4246 5169/
II
.rirodan broj je djelji% sa 6 ako i sarno ako je ist#l%remeno djelji% sa 2 i sa 3/
I"
.rirodan broj je dje-ji% sa 8 ako s) m) tri &adnje cifre n)le i5i cine broj dje0ji% sa 8. 8? .rirodan broj je djelji% sa 25 ako i sarno ako m) je d%ocifreni &a%rsetak djelji% sa 25/
.rosti i slo&eni broje%i 3roj koji je djelji% sarno sa 1 i sa samim sobom &o%e se prost "roj/ :26365676116 ///9/ 3roje%i koji osim jedinice i samog sebe imaj) i dr)gi"
djelitelja A!D) se slo&eni broje%i/ $%aki slo&en broj se mo&e prika&ati U oblik) proi&%oda prostib broje%a/
;prH 300 G 2I150 315 G 3I105 G2/2/75 G 3I3I35 G2I2I3I25
G 3I3I5I7
G2I2I3I5I5
;aj%e#i &ajednicki djeIilac :;A(9
Aa pr~rod.an. broj a ka&emo cia je sadrAalac prirodnog broja b6 a /&a/ b da 0e ~J~lIl.~c od ~ ako je a cijelji%o sa b/ ;aj%eci &ajednicki d~el~lac d%a 555 +5se ~roJev~ je naj%eci broj koji je )
isto %rijeme d0e"lac s%akog oci o+l" bro0e%a/ ;prH Aa broje%e 240 i 360
240G:2I2I2I39I2I5 ;A(:24063609G 2I2I2I3G24
360G:2I2I2I39I3I5
;pr/ Aa broje%e 1266 180684
126G2I3I3I7
;A(:l266l806849G 2I3G6
180G2I2I3I3I5 84G2I2I3I7 /Ak~ je/ naj%/eci/ &ajednocki djelilac d%a i5i %ise broie%a 1 o11da se tl bro0e%5 naAl%a0) rned)sobno prosti/ ;pr/ 46 10 IS' 4G2I2 8
10G2I5
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N~jma?ji z~jednicki ~adrZalac d%a iIi %ise broje%a-;A$ je naJma~JI r~J ) kome 0e sadr&an s%aki od ti" broje%a/ 1ko s) bH8o0e%l r~latl!mo prosti nji"o% najmanji &ajednicki sadr&alac je 510"o%
pr!l&%od/ A~o "#~je~i. nis) relati%no prosti npr/ 186 24 ;A$ odred)jemo na sl0edecl na#111J 18G2I3I36 24G2I2I2I3 ;A$:186249G 2I2I2I3I3G72/
$k)p cijeli" broje%a
AGE ///-26-1606162636/// K
negati%ni cijeli broje%i n)la po&ili%ni cijeli broje%i ---F5--Ff--rl~!r-#$--%--%--t-~r-~-&--%f f ... brojna osa -3 -2 -5 0 2 3 4
/ / 1ko se ~ijeli broj a nala&i :na brojnoj osi9 lije%o od cijelog (rop b onda 0e a manji od b/ ~
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((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((
a aHk $kraci%anje ra&lomaka b = bH k8 kHJt/H!6 $mijemo brojnik i
na&i%nik nekog ra&lomka podijeliti jednim istim brojem :ra&licit
od n)le96 :ra&lomak se nece promjeniti96
45 45H 5 9
;pr/ 20 G20H 5 G"4
7poredi%anje ra&lomaka
,a&lomke najlakse mo&emo
)poredi%ati ako imaj) jednake
2 5
;pr/ -L -:manji je onajna&i%nike i1i jednake brojnike6
7 7
ra&lomak ciji je brojnik manji9 i1i H < ~ :manji je onaj ra&lomak
ciji je na&i%nik %eci96 1ko nemaj) jednake na&i%nike niti brojnike onda i"
prosir)jemo do &ajeclnickog na&i%nika6 ;pr6 Treba )porediti
2 / 3 2 2I5 10 3 363 9
ra&lomke > I _, _=--=--=--=-*ako je3 58 3 3I5 15 5 5I3 15
10 9 kl8 d8 2 3
%8
_>-&a 0)c)0emo a0e ->-,
15 15 3 5
(ecimalni ra&lomci s) oni ) kojima je na&i%nik jedan od broje%a
106 100/ 10006 // 6
,a&lomak ~7edna desetnina9 cesto se o&naca%a sa 06
1
10 :citajH n)la cijeli" ijedna clesetnina96
2-G02 :n)la ci608eli" i d%i08e desetnine9
10 '
100 004 :
,a&lornak 4 G 6 / n)5a cijeli" i cetiri stotnine96
3
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10008
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lljadnine96
G0 :903 :ll7l
a c50e 555 tn
8"8?
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37 215
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6373704d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b70740000020400000014725859
5a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c00000086766965770
00003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000
043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e7900006465736300000000000000127352474
22049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 367G-J
2615G--8 36034 G 3034 'J
10 1008 1000 !peracije sa ra&lomcima $abiranje i od)&imanieH'ocr) se na08laks%e sabl8j8at? d" .
. I : .., , .: bel5 0 )Alma7 laA/ !rn#5 k!jl? 5ma07 1$t1 na&i%nik :$aIb8I 1 I 'j' d)Almamo
8 6 6/lrdm! 0 8 bl!0l1lke a na&l%l11k osta%imo isti9 2 3 5 17 4 13
-+-=---
7 7 7 15 5$-i$ 1ko ra&lomci nerna08) isti naAi+1118k6 ond8a l" prosiri%anjem moramo do%esti n41 &41jednicki na&i%nik6 ;I'. 2 +~G 26 5 + 3I 7 G/@M/ +3.!_31
7 5 7 8 5 5 8 7 35 35 -35
5 2 561 2I2 5 4 1
----=
----=----
6 3 6I1 3I2 6 6 6 Abir prirodnog broja i ra&lomka6 npr/ 3 +!5 c+esto se pise be&
&naka 1/+" pa se dobije broj 3 ~ :tri cije1a i jedna petina96 koji se na&i%a mjeso%iti ra&lomak
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40000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c00000014
6258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c400000088767565640000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0
000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865
776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e3
1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
*od dijeljenja d%a decimalna broja djelilac i dijeljenik pomno&imo sa 10 ako djelilac ima jedn) decima-)6 sa 100 ako ima d%ije6 sa 1000 ako ima tri itd6 pa se dijeljcnje decimalnim brojem
s%odi na dije0jene decimalnog broja cijelim brojem/
;pr/ 56664H 264HHH 56664H 24 2636
86
144
00
.ret%aranje decimalnog broja ) ra&lomak
U ra&lomak se mog) pret%oriti s%i decimalni broje%i sa konacno 111nogo decimalni" mjesta i decimalni broje%i koji imaj) beskonacno mnogo decimalni" mjesta kod koji" se pona%lja jedan te
isti broj :0633333 /// 9 iii gr)pa od d%a iii %ise broje%a :2639393939 /// 9/
235 2 35 //
;pr/ 235 = --GG --:mjeso%tti bro09
6 100 100
*ako se broj 06333 /// mo&e pret%oriti ) ra&lomakN
06333 ///// ==" <I10
3633//////GG10O
3F0633// GGl!O
3FO Gl!O
3 == 10O-O
3 3'
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9 9
*ako se broj 263939 /// pret%ara ) ra&lomakN
263939 /// G2F0/3939 ///
063939 /// =" <I100
39639 ///G100O
39F0639///G100O
39FO G100O
18
39
39G99O HHHHK O =99
&naci 26393939///G2F06393939///G2F 39 G 198 F 39 G 237 /
99 99 998
263939///G 2639
5racionalni broje%i
// (ecimalni r~j~vi sa beskonacno mnogo decimalni" 111jesta k/J~ se ne pona~IJaJu po nekom pra%il) ne 1110g7 se napisati ) ob"k) ra&lomka 1 tak%e broje%e &o%emo iracionali
broje%i/
;pr/ J2 G164142/// 6 /03 GG 1673205 /// 6 e GG 267182/// 6
11: G3614 ///
$k)p iracionalni" broje%a se o&naca%a sa J.
7nija racionalni" i iracionalni" broie%a cini sk)p realni" broje%a ,/
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40000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
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po&iti%na a negati%na ako je ba&a negati %na/9
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40000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c00000014
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1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
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00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000
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000000000000000000000000000000000000
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00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b7074000
00204000000147258595a00000218000000146758595a0000022c000000146258595a0000024000000014646d6e640000025400000070646d6464000002c40000008876756564
0000034c0000008676696577000003d4000000246c756d69000003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c67545
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000000000000000000000000000000000000
Trigonometrijski oblik kompleksnog broja
D
3 tgLp =#
a Gp cos L.
b == .sin L.
O
1ko ) &GaFbi &amjenimo a i b koji s) odreaeni prema slici dobijamo trigonometrijski oblik kompleksnog broja/
& = p:cos L. + i sin Lp9
!peracije sa kompleksnim broje%ima ) trigonometrijskom oblik)/
&1 G.1(4*5 L.l +i sin L.598 & 2 G.2(4*5 <& + i sin L.29
&l /'6& G .5.AV#!$:L.l F Lp&9F i sin:L.l F Lp&9Q
A5.1 , ( .+. . ( +7
-=-'leos L.5 -L.A Fl$m L.5 -L.2
Zz .A
$tepeno%anje kompleksnog broja
&n GV.:cosLpF isinLp9t Gp! :cosnLpF i sinnLp9
$pecijalno &aJ . G5HHHHHK :cosLp F isinLp9n G cosnLp F i sinnLp -'oi%reo% obra&ac
*orieno%anje kompleksnog broja
nl n#r Lp + 2kn L0 + 2kn "J
~& G? cos + i sin / -6 :kG!6l 626 // /6 n-l9 ~ n n
V0garitmi .1
ogaritam nekog po&iti%nog broja ; &a ba&) a :!LaHJtHl9 je eksponent % kojim treba stepeno%ati ba&) ada se dobije broj 8.
loga 8 = % WHK #
%
GG 8
npr/ log2 8 = 3 6 jer %rijedi 2
3
G8
Aa logaritme %rijedi loga1G! jer a!GlJ logaaGl jer a0Ga/ +rijediH
lo) O 1
a ba GS logab =---
1093 a
-logaritam proi&%oda loga :OD9 G loga O F loga T
S
-loboaritam kolicnika loga -= logi a O -5oga D
D
-logaritam stepena log a Ok G% loga S
-logaritam korijena loga ~G@0og
a
O
n
1ko je ba&a logaritma broj 10 onda se logaritam &o%e dekadski i
tad se ba&a i&osta%ljaH 5!gl!SG0!g O/
1ko je ba&a logaritma broj eG26718 /// &o%e se prirodni logaritamH
logeOGln O/
+e&a i&mea) dekadski" i prirodni" logaritama/
log OGln OIlog e J log eG!6434294///G' :mod)l 3riggso%i"
logaritama9
logO 1 1 -1
5nO =-:---= logOI--J -= 26302585 /// = ' loge loge loge
31
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4d5346540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d4850202000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000001163707274000001500000003364657363000001840000006c77747074000001f000000014626b707400000204000000147258595a000002180000001467
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003f8000000146d6561730000040c0000002474656368000004300000000c725452430000043c0000080c675452430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f7
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000000000000000000000000000000000000
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Tok f)nkcije :monmonost9
.eriodicnostH f)nkci isp)nja%a )slo%H 6 ::09 konstanta HJJHH096 8dS4 da odicna sa periodom 0/1 ;ajmanjM po&iti%na
ill &# + &*D< 5<
Tl-OSnOVfl1
kTt-period
;ekaje SlLS26 Sj6S24 Va6bQc( / 1ko %ri0ediH a9 f:S59HH5Hf:S296 f)nkcija je neopadaj)ca b9 f:S59HHHHHf:O&96 f)nkcija/ie nerast)ca 4+ f:S59Lf:Sl96 f)nkcija j< rast)ca d9
f:SlYf:O&96 f)nkcija je opadaj)ca
na inter%al) Va6bQ/ f)nkcije koje &ado%aolja%aj) / gornji" )slo%a ka&/emo da EF! monotone/
f:
a9 8dD4 G je sl se
Aa 8dO 56S&4 %rijedi8 O
:nema ni jednog elementa ) sk)p) 3 na koji se preslika%aj)
iii %ise elemenata sk)pa 0e
1ko je f)nkcija sirjekti%na injekti%na onda /Z ona
bijekti%na/
3ijekti%ne f)nkcije imaj) s%oje in%er&ne f)nkcije/
;eka je $"A~9 bijekti%na f)nkcija/
lednacinom DGf:O9 definisano je D kao f)nkcija ad O6
1ka o%) jedna#in) rijesimo po O dol0icerno OGLp:D9/
1ko ) jednacini OGLp:D9 &amjenimo slo%a O i D dabi:Herno f)nkcij)
y=(p(x) koja je in%er&na f)nkciji + i ona se 8cno o&r-2l#a+l
sa fl:O96
2rafici in%er&ni" f)nkci08a s) simetricni U odnos) na nra%) %GO
, ~
,
:simetrala 5 i 555 k%adranta9/
.rimjerH (atoj f)nkciji f:O9G28 naci in%er&n) f)nkcij)/
lednacin) DG2
O
5jesimo po O i dobijemo OGlog2TI ~ad ~~mjenimo 'I 8dobi08emo DGlog
2
O/ To je in%er&na fmkcl0a6 .rema
s o%a O 1 D6 6 /? V18 9 I ' tome6 datoj f)nkciji f:O9G2
/
in%er&na 0e f)nkclp :S G !g2
S
f)nkcije trigonometrijski" f)nkcija
ln%er&ne f)nkcije trigonometrijski" f)nkcija &o%6emo// 8 cik0ometrijske f)nkcije/ *ako trigonometrij~ke $~nkcJJe m:l~.
8+?
bijekti%ne n3 s%ojim oblastima defimsanostl mo&emo se og6amclt0 , rc rc l ' ",1 V08 rcl
" t r%al l---sa sin)s 1 tangens 1 mter%a/ 8?
na &at%orcm 111 e 28 2 0 /
sa cosin)s i cotangens na kojem &ado%olja%aj) )slo% bijekcije pa potra&imo nji"o%e in%er&ne f)nkcijc/ rc '11"11-1H+ na nrimj8cr 0a ie &a )gao a G-J--H
A--' u '>--.f ~ ~; . t9
rc 1 sada pitanje koliki je )gao #iji jc sin)s
6 2
1
jednak
2
1
To pisemo arcsin -GN To je in%er&na operacija od tra&enja2
sin)sa a f)nkcij) DGarcsin O &o%emo in%er&nom f)nkcijom
., . . I > 7t 7tQ I f' ,
f)nkcl0e DGsmO na ll1ter%a ) -2' 2 / omen /)nkci0c
<~arcsin O je :-1/19 # njen kodomcn je V -~ 6 ~l
'o&emo posmatrat i f)nkcij) DG1rc sin O ciji je domen >-1,17 a kodomen :-oc6 Foc9 koja je beskonacno m)Ciformna :beskonacno %ise&nacna9 6Vjednoj %rijednosti ne&a%isno promjenlji%e
O odgo%ara beskonacno mnogo %rijednosti DQ 6
DGarcsin O je l)k "i%e DG1rc sin O koji se &o%e gla%na %rijednost f)nkcije/ $licno se definis) i ostale ciklometrijske f)nkcije/
2rafici ciklo etrij.i~0 ~unkcija
I I 5
I 5
I n,'---8
12
II=~
19----il
, I
I -1
TG 1rcsin O?
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2/ 5ntegrali oblika fOneaOsjnbOdO i fOneaOcosbOdO · .mFl 0-1 1 f
f
_ J 0 $5n O cos O n -/ n > i&rac)na%aj) se metodom parcijalne integracije sta%ljaj)6i
sin Ocos OdO G + smm Ocos2 OdO
mFn mFn
) GO5@ i d% Ge
3"
sin bO odnosno d%GeilScosbO/
sm Ocos O m-5
f
sin
J
Ocos
n
OdO = .
.J-I nF1
+ rsin
J
-
2
Ocos
n
OdO 3/5ntegrali oblika 0.:lnO9OlldO i f.:arcsinO9dO 6 gdje je .:O9
mFn mFn //
&a mFnHJtH!
polinom po lnO odnosno arcsinO6 s%ode se smjenom lnOGt
odnosno arcsinOGt na integrale f.:t9e:nFl9tdt j f.:t9costdt >
2. .ri rac)nanj) inlegrala oblika faOcosbOdS6 gdje s) a i 3 realne konstante
koriste se trigonometrijski identiteti a ~ G ~ Vcos:a -~6-cos:a +f9Q
cos acos~ G ~ Vcos:a -f99 +cos:a %~6>
acos~ G~?sin2a -f99 +sine a +f99Q
2 /
5ntegracija transceMentni" f)nkcija l/5ntegrali oblika
0.:O9eaOdO 6 f.:O9sinaOdO i f.:O9cosaOdO 6
gdje je .:O9 polinom n-tog stepena6 i&rac)na%aj) se metodom parcijalne integracije/
128 159
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2430000043c0000080c625452430000043c0000080c7465787400000000436f70797269676874202863292031393938204865776c6574742d5061636b61726420436f6d70616e
790000646573630000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000000012735247422049454336313936362d322e31000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000

Mnogouolovi ----------------------------------------------.--------~-7
b

~rougao

--------------------------------------------------------57 Cetvero u gao -------------------------------------------------- 58 Tangentni i teti vni mnogougao ----------------------------60 Broj dij agonala mnogougla ---------------------------------61 Odnos izmedu stranica trougla ----------------------------- 61 Podudatnost traugl ova ---------------------------------------61 Slicnost trouglova (mnogouglova) ------------------------62 Kruznica i hug -----------------------------------------------63
GEOMETRIJSKA TIJELA (povrsine i zapremine) -----64

Prizma, kocka, kvadar ---------------------------------------64 Piramida, zarubljena piramidLf ------------------------------64 Valjak, siplji valjak ------------------------------------------65 Kupa, zarub lj ena ku pa --------------------------------------- 65 Lopta, dijelovj lopte -----------------------------------------66 Torus -----------------------------------------------------------67
Iracionalne jednacine i nejednaCine -------------------------68

III 1\1
strana

Eksponencijalna funkcija ---------------------------------------69
Eksponencijalne jednacine i nejednacine------~----------70

-Logaritamska funkcija------------------------------------------70
Logaritamske jednacine -------------------------------------71 Logaritamske nejednaCine ----------------------------------72

TRIGON0 METRIJA-------------------------------------------73
Definicija trigonometrijskih funkcija no. pravouglom troll glu ---------------------------------------------------------73 Trig~nometrijska krllznica-----------------------------------74 Svodenje na prvi kvadrant ----------------------------------74 V rijednosti trigonometrijskih funkcija --------------------75 Veza izmedll trigonometrijskih funkcija istog ugla -----76 Adicione teoreme --------------------------------------------77 Trigonometrijske funkcije clvostrukog ugla ---------------77 Trigonometrijske funkcije polovicnog ugla -------------77 Izrazavanj e preko tga 1 -tg-a -------------------------------/ -8

2
Transformacija zbira i razlike u proizvod i obrnuto ----78 Funkcije viseslrukih uglova --------------------------------79 Rjesavanje pravouglog trougla------------------------------80 Sinusna teorcma ----------------------------------------------81 Kosinusna teorema-------------------------------------------81 Tangensna teorema ------------------------------------------82 Uglovi trou la ------------------------------------------------83
(J
~

b

Poluprecnik opisane i upisane kruznice ------------------83 Povrsina trougla ----------------------------------------._-----84 Grafici trigonomctrijskih funkcij a -------------------------85 Trigonometrij

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