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Gramatika engleskog jezika

Gramatika engleskog jezika

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Gramatika engleskog jezika
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Gramatika

engleskog jezika
lYlustafa Tanovic
GRAMATIKA ENGLESKOG JEZIKA

Example iSI1 ~ t aI/other way to teach, it is only way to teach
Alhert Einstein
fhn
Mostar, 2002.
Izdavac:
Za izdavaca:
Autor:
Rccczcnti:
Lcktor i korcktor za
cngJeski j bosanski jczik:
Lektor za bosanski jczik:
Stampa:
Za stampariju:
Tiraz:
Faku!lct humanistickih nauka
Univerzitcta "Dzcmal BijediC" 1I Mostaru
Proi'. dL Elbisa Ustamuji6
Prof. dr. Mustafa Tanovic
Colleen B. London. M.A. Linguistics
Prof. dr. SnczanH Hilbija
Jasna Lizdc, prof.
Alen KalajdZic, proJ:
Ie St<lll1parija Mostar
Ibra Rahimic
lOOO
CIP - Katalogizacija 1I bublikaciji
Nacionailla i univerzitctska bibliotcka
Basne i Hercegavine
811.111 '36 (075.8)
TANOVIC, Must"f"
Gramatika cngleskog jezika I Mustafa Tanovi6.
Mostar: UniverLitet "Dzemal BijediC", Fakultet
humanistickih nauka, 2002. - 217 str. : 24 C111
Bibliografija: str 217
ISBN 9958-c,04-06 -X
COBISS / Bill -JD 11242758
Predgovor
Ova kratka gramatika namijenjena jc prijc svcga studcntima engleskog jezika,
studentima na drugim fakultctima i ucenicima srednjih skola. Tokol1l dugogodisnjcg i
ncposrcdnog rada sa ve!ikil1l brojem uccnika u Bosni i Hercegovini na osnovnoskolskom,
srednjoskolskom i visokoskolskol11 nivou, autor je stckao bogato iskustvo i pouzdan
livid 1I tcskocc sa kojima·se nasi lIceniei i 'studenti slloc:waju u proccsu uccnjn engleskog
jezikn. Precizan livid u prirodu i llccslalost grcSaka nasih ucenika i stude nata tI BiB i
nasih izgnanika u New York - U omogucio jc autoru cla vise paznjc i prostora u knjizi
posvcti oninl jcziekim zt1konitostima cngleskog jezikn kojc za nasli populaeiju
prcdstavljaju najvecc poteSkoce.
U SV0111 melu autor .le, u svojstvu s3vjetnika Z3 nastavll cnglcskog i njcmackog
jezika, imao mogucnost i obavezu prcporuciti rad velikog broja nastavni!ca i profesora
englcskogjezika, pratiti i registrirati, njihova iskustva i teskocc, pronnlaziti l:jcScnja za
takvc teSkoce i preporuciti postupke kojima cc sc postizati bolji nastavni rezultati.
To je, svakako, imalo utieaja n3 opredjeljenja i prakticna ljescnja U ovoj knjizi.
Vjerujern dn cc knjiga biti od pomoci i svim drugima koji sc, iz profcsionalnih
i drugih razloga, opredjeljuju da prcciznije upoznaju nacin funkcionisanja engJeskog
jczika, da ga bolje razumiju, da uspjesnije komuniciraju na ovom svjetskom jeziku.
Knjiga je napisana u New Yorku, gradu 1I kojel11 su sc nasli I11nogi nasi izgnanici. Neki
Sll imali osnovnn znanja i vjestine potrcbne za minimalno kOl11l1niciranje na englcskorn
jeziku. drugim<.l je susret sa englcskim .lczikom II Nc\.v York - u bilo prvo iskustvo sa
ovil11 jezikom. Vecina polaznika kurseva, koje jc auto!" organizirao za nase izgnanike,
bili su u poodl11akloj zivotnoj dobL Iskustvo steceno u radu sa oelraslim po\aznicima
bilo.ie visestruko korisno i dragocjeno. Vecina polaznika kurseva u New York - u bilaje
prinuctena brzo usvajati vjestine nuzne za najjednostavniju komunikaciju kako hi se
mog[i na trzif;tu rada, II izuzctno teskim uvjctima i ujakoj konkurcnciji, karaktcristicnoj
za amcrieko trzliitc rada, ukljucivati 1I nckc poslovc u novoj srcdini i tako prehranjivati
svoju porodieu.
Nadam se da ce ova knjiga p0l1106i ne same studentim<1 i llccnicima vee i najsiroj
populaciji u Bosni j Hcrccgovini da uspjesnijc lIei ovaj svjetski jezik, koji je sticajem
okolnosti postao vaz.an uvjct za llspjesnost u svim vrstama poslova, u gotovo svim
domcnim(l tjudskog rada.
Autor
3
lzvodi iz recenzija
Prof. dr. Mustafa Tanovic napisao je udibenik koji je nazvao Grarnatika
cngleskog jezika, koji je, kako Sam kaie U 8vom predgovoru , namijenio studentima
engleskog jezika, studentima drugih stlldijskih grupa, ali i lIcenicima srednjih 5ko1a.
Udibenik Gr:uuatika engleskog Jezika sastoji se ad 9 pogJavlja ad kojih su najobimnija
pogJavlje 0 glagolima i pogJavlje 0 imenicama. Svako poglavlje sadrii niz vjezbanja
koja Sll vezana za tematiku pogJavJja. Takocler, svako pogJavlje i potpoglavJje sadrzi
veliki broj primjera koji stlldentu trcbaju pomoci cia 5to bkse zapamti kontekst za kaji
se veze konkretna forma. To je znacajna vrijednost ave knjige. Isto tako vrijedno je
ista61 i prisllstvo napomena u tekstu svakog pogJavlja iIi potpogJavlja, kojc Sll posebnim
fontom odvojene od drllgog dUcla teksta kojem pripadaju. Na tl.lj na6in student u tim
napomenama dobija korisnll informaciju koja se ticc neke vaine osobenosti pojave koja
se obradllje.
Ovakve knjige uvijek su dobrodosle jer poz,nata nedovoljnost ponllcie akademskih
udzbenika, narocito na polju anglisticke lingvistike, i stoga ova knjiga zasluzuje da
bude stall1pana.
Prof. dr. Snezana Bilbija
Sarajevo, 11. 09. 2002.
This is a good basic compilation artlle essential rules of grammar of EngJish explained
in Bosnian, J intend to use it for students of English at Mastar University. The
university student of English needs til is overall picture of the tricks of grammar. Then,
she or he can begin to put to good use any oCthe many availnble grammars and advanced
textbooks written in English.
Colleen B. London, M.A. Linguistics
5
SADRZAJ
I Glagolska vrcmcna u englcskom jczilm ............................................................. , 9
Sa(hinjosl (14); PIVS'ioSi (29); Baduhwsl (41); Pasiv (50); Koudiciona/ (62);
Konjukliv (66); Imerativ (68); In/itiv (73): Gerandi (80); Parlicipi (85);
Slagm?je premella (89); Upravni i ncupraFni gOVDJ' (93);
Pogodhcnc I'cccn;ce (98): Nepotplflli g/ago/i (J02): Qucs'tions Tbgs (l09).
II Imcnicc ................................................................................................................ 111
Rod imcnica (J J 4); Plural (l j 5): Padezi imenica (12 J).
III Clanovi. .............................................................................................................. 125
Upotreba odrcctenog (J 27); i:::osral'{jm?je neodrcctenog Clan({ (J 30);
Upotreba oc/reclenog Clemo (130); lzostavljanje odredenog Clana (J 35),
IV I'ridjcvi .............................................................................................................. 139
POrCdel?je pridjeva (142); KOlllparativjednos/oznih pridjel'CI (143);
Komparatil' I'i.s-es/oznih pridjeva (J 44); Super/ativjedno5;/oinih pridjeva
(146); Super/ativ l'iX'csloznih pridjcl!({ (147); Nepravilna komparacija
pridjeva (148).
V Zamjenicc .......................................................................................................... 153
Lh'ne zamjen ice (155): Prisvqjne zallljenice (156) .. POl'ratne za/lljenice (156) ..
VI Zamjcnicc iii pridjcvi.. ..................................................................................... 159
Prisvojne zaJ/(jenice i prh(jel'i (161),' Upitfle zCIf}!jenice i prh(jevi (162);
Pokazllc zClf}!jel1ice; pricUel'i (164): Odnosne (re/afivne) i
pric(jevi (167),' Neodrec1ene zafJ1ienice i pri({jevi (167); Neodrectene zarnjenice
i pric(jevi (f70): S/ozenc neoclrcctclI(! z({I/1iel7ice (176),
VII I'rilozi. ............................................................................................................... 183
Tvorha priloga (185): Podje/a priloga (186); Porec1enje priloga (186):
Nepravilllo poredeJ{je priloga (188): 1denlic':nosl oblika pri/oga i pridjeva
(l8S):
Dvost1'1lkf oblici pl'i{ogo (189); iV{jesfO prilogoll (190),
VIII Brojcvi.. ........................................................................................................... 197
Brojcl'i za pOllav!jwy'c (199); Raz/o!J]ci (202); Decimalni brojevi (202):
Cittll?je osnol'nih lI/ate!1latickih izraza (203).
IX I'rijcdlozi.. .......................................................................................................... 205
7
I GLAGOLSKA VREMENA U ENGLESKOM JEZIKU
Gmmatika engfeskog jez.ika
Jedan od najtczih problema sa koj im sc stalno suocavaju nasi studenti .Ie pravilna
upotrcba gJagolskih vremena u englcskomjeziku. Razlozi za to su formalni i sustinski.
U engleskom postoji i fonnalno mnogo vise vrcmena nego u bosanskomjeziku. Mi smo
uglavnol11 naviknuti na cetiri vremena: prczent. fulur, pluskvamperfekt. Ovaj posljednji
kod nas je rijetko u upotrebi, pa se nase prcdstavc svode uglavnom l1a tri vremena.
Nasuprot tome, u cngleskom jeziku postoji scst Vremena aktiva i scst vremena pasiva:
I. THE PRESENT TENSE,
2. THE PAST TENSE,
3. THE FUTURE TENSE,
4. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE,
5. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE,
6. THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.
Ovoj cinjenici treba dodati pociatak da spomenuta engJcska vremena itnaju dva aspekta:
tzv. simple aspect i progressive (coninuous) aspect. ImajuCi 1I viclu tu cinjenicll cia za
sest vremena aktiva imamo dvanaest razlicitih glagolskih oblilul i osam oblika pasiva,
zatimjos dcsetak razlicizih glagoisldh mogncnosti za iskazivanjc vrcrncna, dolazimo
do L1ntasticne konstatacije cia mi pri upotrcbi engleskih glagolskih vrcmena 111ora1110
nasc predstave 0 tri (cetiri) vremcna mijenjati prema zahtjevima engleskog jezika u
kome, eto, imaju bar tridcsct i dvi,ie razlicite gJagolske forme aktiva i pasiva koje
moramo prirnjcnjiv<lti u proccsu na engleskomjeziku, narocito u procest!
pismenog komuniciranja.
No, spol1lenuta cinjenica preclstavlja manji clio problema za nase studente ,ier se ta
fonnalna obiljcija, ipak, mogu nalleiti rclativno brzo. Tei,i dio problema sustinske je
sem.mticke prirodc. Naime, postoje brojna pravila koja na!azu k<1c1a se koji glagolski
oblici za razlicita vremcna moraju Llpotrijcbiti, kacla sc neki glagolski oblici ne mogu
upotrijebiti 11 datom kontekstu i situaciji bez rizika da doc1e do ozbiljnijih nesporazuma,
nerazumjevanja, a postoje i okolnosti u kojim<l je izbor ocigovarajuccg glagolskog
vrcmena stvar intcrpretacije kontcksta.
Eto zasto je pravilna upotreba glagolskih vremena cngleskomjeziku kamen spoticanja,
tj. izuzetno veliki problem za govornikc bosanskogjczika.
Pored spomenutih vremena postoji jos odrc(1cn broj glagolskih ob!ika koji strogo
govorcci - nisu glagolska vremena iako se i POITIOCU njih moze izraziti vrijemc: cetiri
gerunda, pet razlicitih participa, sest infinitiva ( mi imamo same jedan infinitiv), 1'azni
idiomatski iZ1'azi itd. Sve to posebni su glagolski oblici koji usloznjavaju ionako slozenu
II
j slojevitu strukturll engleskih vremena i drugih glagolskih oblika koji sc bitno - formalno
i sustinski - razlikuju od nasih jczickih sredstava za iskazivanje tri vremenska okvira:
sndasnjost, pros!ost j buducnost. Ovdjc treba 1111ati u vidu tri cnglcska nacina (illdilultiV,
kOl1juktiv i imperativ), dva kondicional<l (koudicional sadasnji i kondicioual proIi),
te.skocc oko slaganja vremen<l, upotrcbe if - recenica, direktnog i indirektnog govora
itd.
Jpak, najvece potdkoce prccistavlja pravilno iskazivanjc triju osnovnih vremenskih
pOJl11ova prosIosti i buduclIosti za sta sc koristi iZl"azito vcllki broj
razlicitih gJagolskih oblika.
Sadasnjost u cnglcskomjeziku moz,c se 1zmz!!! upotrebomjcdnog ad sUedccih glagolskih
vremena.
I.The Progressive (Continuous}Present Tense,
2.The Simple Present Tense,
3.The Progressive Present Perfect "fensc,
4.The Simple Present Perfect Tense,
5.The Simple Prescnt Tense Passive,
6.The Progressive Present Tense Passive.
Prosiost se maze iskazati upotrebom ovih glagolskih oblika:
I.The Simple Present Perfect Tense,
2.The Progressive Present Perfect Tense,
3.The Historic (Dramatic) Present,
4.The Simple Past Tense,
5. The Progressive Past Tense,
6.The Simple Past Perfect Tense,
7.The Progressive Past Perfect Tense,
8.Used to + Inilnitive,
9.WOllld + Infinitive,
10.Participies,
II.Having + Past Participle i Having been + Past Participle,
12.Being + Past Participle,
13.Thc Simple Present Perfect Tense Passive,
14.The Simple Past Tense Passive,
IS.The Progressive Past Tense Passive,
16.The Simple Past Perfect Tense Passive.
BdUCl10st se moze iskazati upotrebom ovih glagolskih oblika:
I.The Simple Future Tense,
2.The Progressive Future Tense,
3.The Simple Future in the Past,
4. The Progressive Future in the Past,
5.The Future Perfect Tense,
6.The Simple Present Tense,
7.The Progressive Present Tense,
8.Going to + Infinitive,
9.To be about to + Infinitive i to be to + Infinitive.
1 O.Future Tense Passive.
lzbor pravog naCina za iskazivnnje sadasnjosti, proslost'i i buciucilosti II datom kontekstu
inn semanticka a ne forma Ina obiljezja. Taj prayi izborje narocito vazan II akademskom
sluzenju engleskim jezikol11, mnogo vazniji nego pri llobicajcnoj konverzaciji. Kad to
i111a1110 II vidu i kacl nyu cinjenicu povczcmo sa gornjolll konstatacijolll 0 velikOll1 broju
glagolskih oblika za sest cnglcskih vrcmCll<l aktiva i pasivn, sa po elva aspckta: simple
i progressive ondn zaista ne cudi sto to nasim stuelentima predstavlja iZllzetno tczak
problem. To je razlog da sc tvorbi i upotrcbi gJagolskih vrernena mora posvccivati
iZlIzctna i stallll1 pazllja na svim nivoima lIccnja englcskog jczika.
13
SADASNJOST
1. The Prest'llt Progressive (Continuolls) Tense
Trajni prczcnt gradi sc od prezcnta pOlllocnog glagola "to be'l i participa prezenta
aI{tiva od glagola koji zclimo upotrUebiti. (prc::enf pO/llO(:l1og p,/ago/a "(0 be "+ particip
prezenla akfiva).
I am O!QU arc he is she i5; 1\'(' {frc 1'011 (//'(' tlwl' are) writing sDca/\./m
r
sf/litH!
sieevilw lI'orkillV Cl'l'ilw ild
Upitni oblik tvori se invcrzi.iom potvrdnog obIika, zamjcnolll mjesta subjckta i
glagola. Am I ( is he. is she) wril-iol,! sleeping, sitting. pJaving? itd.
Odricni oblik pravi sc dodavanjcl11 ncgacijc not koja se slnv lja iZI11Cciu odgovarajuccg
oblika pomocnog glagola "to be" i participa prczcntn ujJotrijcbljcnog glagola.
[alii !lot i he i\" lIot she is /lot> sleepifl
u
It'l'ifil]J:, yitriflV n/avillo. ifd.
Odricllo-upitlli oblik pravi sc dodavanjcm ncgacijc not upitnom obliku.
Negacija not se stavlja iZl11cau subjckta i pnrticipa prczcnta.
Is he !lot s/eeDiflV? Arc tlic), flut n/({l'inv ill {he oan/ell 'J Is J\1ark·I1Qrdo;'w his hOlllework?
4r( Ann alld 111([n' flOr
NapofJIel1a 1: Alol"(lfl/o iowti 1/(/ /III/If da II parlicipu pre::enta mogll nas/ati iZl.'leSlIe
prollljelle pri {Forbi. Dokle: porticip pre::en{a sc tvori
dodavaJ!jem glagolu nm·;wl'ka -- "ing". Pri tome st' maze desitijedan
od sfjedei'a fri s/uc({ja:
• U g/ago/1f flC do/azi du prol/!jena. Glagolu se S(1fl10 doda ing.
Ask -asking, walk - walking, play playing, tJy .. - tJ:l'ing, do - doing, wam
warning, speak - .speaking, Imy - buying. watch - watching .
• Ako se iI!/initil' glagolu ::m'l".';(/v(/!/a (' .'Ie lie i::govara ofl(/a c sc 10
izostavlja prcd nastavkom -iug. Give - giving, decide - deciding, face
/2tcil1g. promise - promising, cOllie - cOllling. dripe - driving, m(lke lJICIlring,
closing, celebrate - celebratillg, rake - laking, leave - icC/viI/g.
translate - lmf}s/(I{ing, type -- typing, reduce - reducing.
• Kod glagola flO)! se Z((\,{",s·(I\I((ili 1I(1 sug/asnik kOlile pre/hodi k.mtak i lIcnagia,s·en
samog/(lsnik udvostrucava sc taj krajnji suglasnik.
Swim - swimmillg, drop - dl"Oppillg, get - getting, plan - planning,
put - Plltting, stop - stopping, rUI1 - running, sel - setting,
hit - hitting, sit - sitting, beg - begging, mb - robbing, control - controlling.
Napomena 2: U potvrdnom, odricnom i odricno-upitnom obliku pomo6ni glagol " to
be" moze se pisati i izgovarati u sazetom obliku:
~ 1 'm, (he \, she ~ < ) sleeping, playing, writing, cliftillg, ,)'flf(Zl'ing, reading itd
.. ~ V e '/'c (you're, they,re) sleeping, playing, writing, sfl/c(ving, clitting, reading.
oJ'm not (he isn i, she iSII 't) sleeping, playillg, writillg, stll((l'ing, cuffing .
• We oren '( (VOli oren 'f, they aren f) s/eeping,p/oyillg, writing,studying, clItting
• 1m't he (\'i1e), arcn', you, aren 'f we ( they) sleeping, ployiFlg, H'riting, stu((l'ing,
clftting?
lJpolrdlH
1. Present Tense Continuous (Progressive) se upotrebljava za radnju koja se dogada u
trenutku kad 0 njoj govorimo .
.. What are you doing? ("Nc)\v" podrazumijcva sc, iii sc ponekad i pomene)
.. f am reading a novel.
".6..IT. you re<lding a novel by Hemingway?
.. No I'm not.l.J.n reflding a novel by Dickens.
2. Trajni prezent koristi sc za izrazavanjc sndasnje radnjc koja sc ne mora desavati u
trenutku govorenja vcc je pocela ranijc a trajc i sada. U ovakvim slucnjevimn govorimo
o tzv. duratil'lIoj rctciF?ji.
o I-1e iiLlvritin.g an Englislrtextbook .
.. We all are growing olcler .
.. My sister is translating n famous English novel "Oliver T\vist"
.. They arc Intilding n new bridge over tbe Neretva river.
U OYU kal.egorlju upotrebe t.rnjnog prezenta spadaju i sluc::\jevi kada sc nc podrazumijeva
obavezno govoriti 0 raclnji II tokll II trcnutku govora, vee 0 uobicajenom ponasanju
oclrec1ene licnosti 0 kojoj se govori.
• 1 am studying together with lllY..friencl Ann. (Nije neophoclno/upitno sada),
• She is working with her rather. (Nijc neopbodno/upitno sada)
• He is a player. He is playillg baskct/Jal/.
3. Trajni prezent se upotrebljava sa always, constantly, forever HZ prijoge kako bi
izrazio llcka bitna svojstva osobc 0 kojoj se govori, njcn llobicajcni nacin ponasanja. U
lakvoj situaciji govornik cesto (ne uvijck) izrazava prigovor, protest, prijckor a cijela
struktrura ima negativan prizvuk .
.. Joanna is...illi'L<lVS !caving her dil1y shirts on the noar. (prijekor, kritika)
.. ''I'm always (constantb:l.picking up my brother's dirty socks" says Ann,
• She is a nervous person. She is ahynvs complaining \vithoul any reason.
• Ann is c01lstantly asking mnny questions .
.. Mary is always sjniiing and laughing.
15
o Vera's always messing Ull the whole kitchen.
• She is always tlying to show me that she is much smarter than 1 am.
o She says that her husband is always snorinjJ.
4. Trajnirn prczcntol1l sc l110ZC i21'3ziti bliska, izvjesna buducnosL U takvim okolnostima
upotrebe najcesce se navcde i priiog za vrijcme u kojcll1 CC se radnja izvrsiti.
Azra is leaving Mostar tomorrow morning.
e I am visiting my friend Mary tonight.
• 'vVe are going to the concert on Saturday.
• They arc c ~ back bome Oil Sunday.
• Jvlirza is I raveling to Sarajevo ill three days.
Napomcf7a: Postaji rc/ati1'!lo vellki bmj giago/a kaj; ne fIIogu bill lIpofrUebUcni /.I trqjnofll
obliku, osll/l u i:.:u:.:etllilll kOlltekstilll({, II izuzetnilll lfpotreiJa/l/a. Ib su g/ago/i
ko)! se ocinose 11(1:
• MENTALNA SYOJSTYA OSOGE: know, realize, believe, imagine, want, doubt,
nced, understand; ngree; disagree; recognize, suppose, remember, forget, prcfer, mean.
• EMOCIONALNA STANJA: love, hate, miinJ, fear, like, dislike, envy, appreciate,
care.
• GLAGOLl KOJ! OZNACAYAJU POSJEDOYANJE : own, belong, possess.
• GLAGOLl PERCIPIRANJA: hear, see, notice.
• DRUGE YRSTE GLAGOLA KO.II NE MOGU !MATI TRAJNE OGLlKE: seem,
cost, exist., consist o f ~ contain, include, wish, find, decide.
2. The Simple Present Tense
Prezent obicni se u potvrdnom ublilw tvori taka da se trecem lieu jednine dodaje
nastavak -5 iIi -cs. Sva ostala lica jednine i ml10iine imaju isti oblik kao iniinitiv
glago!a bez "lo". Ako se glagol zavrsava I1n -S, -z, -S, -z, -c, -d1 , onda se trecemlicu
prezcnta doJajc nastavak -cs. Taj _. cs se uvijek izgovara "jz".
• to miss he (she) misses to npologize he (she) apo!ofizes
e to box be (she) boxQli to arrange bc (she) arrang-es
• to confess he (she) c o n f e ~ to fish he (she) fishes
• to teach be (she) teaches to watch he (she) watches
• to push he (she) pushes to energize he (she) encrg-izes
Glagolima koji se zavrsavaju na -0 dodaje se L! trecem licujednine nastavak -es i or: se
izgovara kao nase z.
• to go he (shel gillcl
• to do he (sbel does
16
Glagolima koji se zavrsavaju na -c dodajc sc u 1rccem lieu nastavak -s koje se razliCito
jzgovara II ovisnosti od toga cia Ii .ie suglasnik koji prethodi nas1avku -c zVllcni iii
bczvLlcni:
.. to live he (she) lives
• to decide
.. to close
• to like
.. to hope
.. 10 insure
.. to drive
he (she) decides
he (she) closes
ill: (s h eJJik9",
he (she) hopes
he (she) insures
he (she)
Na i,",'li l/aCin se POfUL\'(!ju i drugl
g/ogoli koj; se z({vdmY{jll no -e:
fa agree, to iJJl'iie, (0 lise, to
imagine, to phone, to hesitate,
/0 leave. /0 arrive.
U drugim slucajevima trecem liCll jcclnine se dodaje nastavak -s ion se moze izgovarati
kao nase s iii kao nase z. Kao s izgovara se ako se gJagol zavrS<1va I1n bezvucni
konsolla111 (-p, -k, - t, -0, a kao z ako se gJago\ zavrS(1va na zVLlcni konsonant ( -b, -d,
-g, -11, -m, -I)
-, -z
.. to stop he stQPS to come comes
• to cut
he (she) Cllts to ill1<lgine he (SllclJ,m.ugjIles
.. to look hushe) looks to live he (shQ.)Jivcll
.. to laugh he (she) laughs to Cell! he (she} crdls.
• to put he (she) PlliS1 to clerl11 hushc) cleems
• to talk
he (she) 1a to wear he (she) wears
• to keep Ilushe} 10 sail he (sbt.l sails
• to cook
he cQ9ks to swim he (she) swims
• to surf be smfs to vacuum he (she) vacuums
Potvrdni ohlil\.: I ask, you a;>k he asks she askL\Y.(;": ask. you (lsk. they ask.
Odricni oblik tvori se dodavanjem infinitiva glagola koji z,elimo upotrijebiti prezentu
pomocnog glagola to do U oclricnoll1 ob!iku.
r do not (don 'I) ask You dQ not (don 'I) ask l-1e docs 1101 (docs!Li) ask, We do ll,ot,i.dmLLl
ask, You do not (don't) ask They do not (don\L.WiL
UpH-ni oblil{ pravi se oel upitnog prezenta pomocnoga g];:lgola to elf) kojem se doda
infinitiv upotrijebljcllog glagola.
Do I ask?, Do VOll ask'?, Does he ask? Does she ask? On weask? Do vou ask? Do they
ask?
Odricno-upitni oblik gradi se dodavanjcm ncgacije nol' iza upitnog oblika prezcnta
glagola to do, a isprecl iniinitiva glagola koji zclimo upotrijebiti,
Do I not ask'?, Do VQU not ask') Docs he- not ask') Does_5he 1101 ask2J)o we not ask? DQ
XQ1Lilll.t ask" Do they oQ1 afikl
17
Pri tvorbi ovog prezenta u glagolu se desava sUcde6a promjena: kod gtagola koji se
zavrsavaju na y to y mijenja se u 1, ako tom nastavku prethodi konsonant. Nakon toga
se doda nastavak cs u trecem lieu jed nine. Meuutim, ako se glagol zavrsava na )', a
prethodi 111U vokal ovakve promjene nema, vee se glagolu S81110 doda nastavak s.
• to cany he (she) carries to pIny he (she) plays
• to elY he (she) cries ali to pay he (she) pays
• to t1y he (she) tries to say he (she) says
• to fly he (she it) n ies to buy he (she) buys
• to apply he (she) applies to enjoy lli:-Ls.he) enjoys
Upotrcba
Simple Present Tense se upotrebljava u sljede6im okolnostima:
1. Kada sc iskazuje uobicajena radnja ("habitual action"), tj. radnja koja se uobiCajcno
desava, ali nc u trenutku kada se 0 njoj govori. U ovakvim recenicama cesto se
upotrebljavaju iii podrazumUcvaju adverbijalne oznake vremena: very oftcn every week
almost eyel)' day sometimes from time to time eve.!')! month twice a month (a week)
now and then.
e He starts to work at 8 a.m. and ~ home at 6 p.m.
• We usually have dinner at 6 0' clock.
• I-lis friends call him to go out almost cvery day.
• Does Maria write letters very often?
• Women generally -I2!!1Jlli their make-up in the morning.
• Good students usually don't miss. their classcs.
• Does he s.ing in the choir every day? No, he doesn't, only twice a week.
2. OviIn vremenom iskazuju se opec konstatacije, a vremcilski okviri se ne pomi11ju,
zatim op6epozn<lte cinjenice, naucne istine i poslovicc.
18
• A week has. seven days and every day has 24 hours.
• Every c h i l d ~ good care.
• Mmy gQQS. to work by car and her brother by bus.
• lle understands Italian a little bit but he does!l 't sl2Q.il.k it.
o 1 do not agree with thc chairman.
• Children never drink strong coffee, their parents do.
o-The policeman controls traUic at the crossroads.
e Spring is mild and pleasant in Hercegovina.
• The Neretva is a beautiful river and everybody loves it.
e A year has 365 days.
• The sun rises in the east.
o The moon goes around the earth.
o After rain comes' sunshine.
• An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
• Don't cry over spilt mille
o A stitch in time saves nine.
3. Ovo vrijeme upotrebljava se umjesto Past Tens-a za opis
proslih dogadaja radi privlacenja vece paznje slu§alaca, radi postizanja dramske tenzije
i ostavljanja upecatljivijeg utiska.(Historic ili Dramatic Present)
She reads these sentences aloud, throws the letter away and starts to Cl)'.
The robber the bag,jlllIl12sjnto the car very quickly and drives away as fast as he
can. He knows' the police (Ire nearby.
t gs.?UlI2Jl.lte, take a shower very quickly,J.l.rink a glass of' orange juice, dOll 'I eat anything,
jump into my car and drive to school hoping to arrive on time.
Svi ovi dogactaji desili su se u prosIost,i ali im narato1' zeli dati poseban pecat zivosti pa
ih priea u sadasnjem vremenu.
4. Present Simple Tense upotrebljava se takoderza buducu, unapri.ied planiranu radnju.
• She leaves Mostar tomorrow night.
• I take the G- bus at six p.m. (It is now 11 a.m.)
• We go tomorrow to work by car, not by bus.
• When your brother corne back? I think he comes back in two days.
• We 11.v...to London on Sunday moming.
• My parents lm-for a trip tomorrow night.
• He lnkes his children to the city park tomorrow at nine a.m,
5. Ovo se vrijeme upotrebljava sa glagolima koji ne mogu imati trajni aspekt (progressive
tense,) iako se njime iskazuje radnja koja se upravo dogada u trenutku govora.
e I llnderstand what he is telling me.
• We are sllre us very much.
-I irn'aginc the whole situation. (I can imagine" .. )
• me he will not come at all.
• That doesn me at all.
• I what is going on here,
• My father owns this beautiful house, not you.
• You are telling me something that I really dill.tbJ:..
• We hc.ar our guests coming.
o She feels the danger hanging in the air.
• They recognize their car that was stolen two days ago.
Kad se .:leli posebno nagJasiti da je raclnja koja se spominje zaista u toku,,, kad 0 njoj
govorimo, moze se upotrijebiti modalni glagol can tJ kombinaciji sa glagolima koji ne
mogu imati trajni oblilc Dalele: I can hear you (see you, understand you, feel the danger,
imagine your trouble).
19
6. U vremenskim pogodbcnim reCcnicama kada je gJavna reccnica u futuru iii u
impcrativu upotrebljava se u sporednoj recenici prezent obieni .
.. If he has enough time, he will join us.
e If they hcl.I2 us, we wi!! be able to finish our job before noon.
He will refuse to come even if I...!l.S.k him again.
• V/e will see him when he g£!.ii...\,l.J2,.
" VVait here till the train s..tQp..s..
" Most probably I will call yOH when I COBle home.
• I f he sleeps a litlle less, he'll be at scbool in time.
• Who will tell him the truth when she comes?
• Go out before your father
7. Prezcnl obien! koristi se u usklicnim (uzvicnim) rccenicama iako se radnja koja se
spominje ddava u trenutku kada 0 njoj govori. Ova va;1;1 samo Z<l izvjestan broj glagola
kao: sit, stand, go, come, be.
• Here_G.Qmes our teacher!
• Here COl11.!6i the magic school bus!
• Here they ru:s:'
3. Simple Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Tense Simple siozeno glagolsko vrijemena a oblikuje se u potvrdnom
obliku od prezen1a pomocnog g18gola to have i participa perfekta glagola koji zelimo
upotrijebiti.
Tvorba participa pcrfekta moze biti dvojaka:
1. Od pravilnih glagola particip perfekta tvori se dodavanjcm nastavka -cd na infinitiv
glagola. To znaci da je kod pravilnih gJagola particip perfckla po obliku idcntican Past
Tens-u. Prilikom dodavanja u glagoJu nastaju izvjesnc promjcne.
- Ako se infinitiv glagola zavrsava na -c onda se particip pcrfekta grad! dodavanjem
nastavka -d.
• like
"live
• suppose
• lose
• love
loved
• hope

• agree
agreeQ
• confuse confused
:'0
imagine
decide
improve
hesitate
indicate
injure
insure
notice
imaginG.d
decided
imprQved

indicated
injured
insured
noticed
- Ako se infinitiv glagola zavrsava lla sllglasnik kojem prethocii kratak i naglasen
samoglasnik onda sc taj suglasnik udvaja:
.. drop droJ2l].hd permit 12IT!llitted
• prefer preferred refer to referred to
• stop tip tiJ:lpffi
• beg trim trimmed
• rob robbed plan planned
• skip omit Q.lllllled
- Alw se infinitiv zavrsava na a prethocJi l11U suglasnik taj se mijenja u i kada ITIU
sc doda nastavak -cd.
Medutim, ako tom -y prethodi vokal nema nikakvih prornjena U glagolu pri dodavanju na-
stavka -y prethodi vokal nema nikakvih promjena u glagolu pri dodavanju nastavka
• marry married ali: enJoy 5dl.joved
• study otudied play
• copy copied stay
• imply implie.d
• t1y triee!
Napomena 1: liastavak -cd fwd pravill1ilrglagola izgovara se najedan ad tri lI10guca
!laCina: kao -t, kao -d i kao -hI. Nakon bezvucnih sliglasl1ika k,p,f, s, S
lIastavak -ed se izgovara kao t. Ako Sf! ir!(initiv glago!a zavrsava 11([ zVlIcni
slIg/asnik iii lIa sall1og/asnik onda se nastavak -cd izgov(fra kao d, i najzad
oko se g/agol zavr!mva no -t if; -d onda se l1astavak-ed izgovara kao - hI.
Napomef}a 2: Kod Ilepmvilnih glago!a particip p('I/e!aa se mora nal/cUi napamet pO/lio
nema pmvi/a 0 grcute/?ju ovog glagolskog oblika.
Pot'vrdni oblik
I (we you they) have visited (planned cried studied stayed. gsked. taken),
He (she) has ,"lsiled (planned cried stayed asked
Napomena: Ob/ik 1, YOll, we they maze se pisati i izgol'Clrati skraceno kao 1 've vOII've
)j'f! 've the)! 've dak se she i he pi§u; izgav(lrc!iu skr({(:'eno kaa she:} he
Upitni oblik: tvori se inverzijom j)otvrdnog oblika perfekta tj. zamjenom mjesta
subjckta i prcdiklta. Drugacije receno: uphni oblik ovog vremena tvori \se od upitnog
obtika prezenta glagola to have i participa perfekta glagola koji zelimo upotrijebiti.
J-lave I (you we. llley) visited 11lanned cried stayed. forgotten
Odnosno: visited planned cried. staved. forgotten taken?
21
Odricni oblik gradi se od oJrienog oblika prezenta pomocnog glagola have i participa
perfekta giagola koji zclimo upotrijebiti.
·1 (you, we, they) have not visited (planned, cried; stayed, forgotten, taken),
• She (he, it) has not visited (planned, cried, stayed, forgotten itd.)
Naravno i ovqj oblik se /1/o:e pisafi i izgovamt! skmceno,
I (VOli we the)!) have" viyjted (planned cried yfa)!ed /Orgotfen (akell) odnosno: She
(he 10 ham I visited (planllcd cried ytawd forgotten taken),
Odricno-upitni oblik gradi se od oddeno oblika pomocnoga glagola to have
i participa pcrfckta gJagola koji zelimo upotrijebiti.
I-lave I not, has she (he) not, have we not itd. visited, planned, cried, forgotten, taken
itd.
I ovi oblici pel/ekta se mogu izgovarati i pisa!i skraceno law: haven ,I (you, we, they)
+ particip pet/ekta, odnosf1o hasn [she (he, it) + particip pellek(a,
Upotreba
Postoje vclike razlike u upotrebi per[ekta u bosanskom i u engleskomjeziku. Potrebno
je stoga obrazloziti u kojim okolnostima se upotrebljava engleski Present Perfect. Ako
bi se propustilo naznaciti uslove u kojim3 se uobicajeno upotrebijava Present Perfect
Tense mogio bi doci do znaeajnih gresaka pri prevodenju nasih tekstova na engleski i
engleskih na nas jezik. Najbitnije je da se shvati da Present Perfect Tense moze iskazivati
sadasnju radnju (sto je eest slucaj)) pa eak i buducu radnju, Ima veliki broj primjera
koji potvrduju da se ovim vrel11cnOl11l11oze izraziti i sadasnja j buduca radnja, tj, da ovo
vrijeme moze obuhvatati i sadasnjost i proslost i buducnost.
Present Perfect Tense iskazuje radnju u vremenskim recenicama koja ce sc dogoditi
u buducnosti.
• Wben I've improved my English I will go to England.
• Wait for me till I have finisbed my writing.
• Maria will give me this novel as soon as she has finished reading it.
.. He will call me as soon as he has completed the \.vork .
.. The students will be very happy when they have passed all their exams,
Ipak Present Perfect Tense najcesce je povezan sa proslim ili sadasnjim zbivanjima u
sJijedeCim uvjetima:
1 a) Simpie Present Perfect Tense upotrebljava se da oznae! radnju koja je poeela u
proslosti ali kojaje jos u toku. U ovakvim siueajevima se Simpie Present Perfect Tense
najcesce prevodi sa nasim prezentom.
Tbey have been very bl! sy for the last three weeks (te tri sedmice jos traju) Dakle:
oni su vrlo zauzeti (zaposleni) vee tri sed mice.
• My mo..ther hasJivecl jn Mostar for 60 years. (Ijos 2:ivi u Mostaru)
• He has been ill since October (Jos uvijekje bolestan)
• The students have studied English for eight yeurs (ijos ga studiraju)
• Om frjend who is ill has heen hospitalized for three weeks (i jos je)
• We haven't seen her this month. (Taj mjesec jos nije zavrsen)
1 b) U neposrednoj vezi sa ovakvom upotrebom pCJi"cl{ta obicnogje injegova upotreba
sa adverbijalnim oznakama vremena koje ukljueuju sadasnji trenutak: now, today, this
year, this month, this week pod uvjctom da jc radnJn vee ranijc zapoccla.
• Today we have been to Central Padc (Danas smobili. ..... J
• She has not the office today. (Onajos nije dosIa, radni danjos traje)
• They have not eaten this morning. (Nisu jutras pojeJi svoj ciorucak)
• My parents have not visited uncle John this month. (Nisu posjetili)
• I have 'worked velY hard this week. (Radio sam iii radim ave sedmice veoma
naporno) iii: radim ove sed mice - zavisno od sirega kontcksta).
o Our guests have been with us for almost two weeks. (su bilL .. perfekt ili su
vee .. prezent zavisno od intencije govornika i sirega konteksta)
U primjerima datirn pod II vise odgovara prevod sa nasim sadasnjim vrcmenom, a pod
b, oeito je, postoji ko\ebanje pa je moguce prevoditi iii nasim perfektom (eesee), iii
nasim prezentom (!jeae).
2. Ovo vrijeme kodst! se cia oznaei radnju koja je poceln u prosiosti, zavrsila se, ali se
posljedice jos Llvijek osjecaju u sadasnjem trenutku, tj. njene posljedice prislltne Sll u
sadasnjosti.
• I have bought a new suit. (Sadasnja posljedica je: I am wearing it) Dakle: Kupio
sam ..
• Look what you have done, (Sadasnja pos\jedica: the table is dirty now)
• My parents have gone out (Pos\jedicaje: they are not at home.)
• They have moved into a new apatiment. (Posljedica: they don't live here any
longer).
o They have built a new bridge over the Neretva. (Mozemo prelaziti preko njega).
• I have not read this weU known noveL (ne mogu 0 njemu raspravljati)
e The stucients their skills and their knowledge very much.
06to: ovakve i sliene primjere prevodimo nasim perfektom.
3. Present Perfect Tense upotrebljava se za radnju koja se desila u proslosti ali se
vrijeme desavanja radnje ne pominje, ono nije od znaeaja. U ovakvirn slucajevima
naglasakje na konstataciji cin,ienicc (iIi cinjenica) a ne na vremenskom okviru radqje.
23
I have been to Nevv York. ( KOllstatacija - vrijemc nije bltno).
e We have heard this terrible. llews .
.. Hay£' you read the Report on human rights abuse?
o Mirza has not \vrittcn his homework.
1 ovakve primjerc prevodilllo prelezno /Ud'im pelfektoll1.
4. Present Perfect Tense upotrebljava se za radnju koja se upravo se
u takvim slucajevima upotrebljava adverb vremcna just .
.. My mother has just arrivcQj'rom her London trip.
• We met two good school friends.
• 1 have iust come back n'om New York.( Evo bas sam se vr31io iz New York-a)
Azra has jus1 gottGJl..a very important letter fl'om her uncle Amer.
• 1 lave you just finished your job? (Jesi Ii ovog trena zavrsio posao?)
• \Ve hDve just had our lunch. (Bas sad smo rucali).
5. Ovim sc V1'e111cn0111 iskazujc ponavljana pros"l radnja.
• The students have had many tests so far, six or seven. (lmali su .)
.. I have writtc:D. to my at [cast one letter every week. (Pisao sam)
• This diplomat has traveJed abroad very often, at least twice a month.
Present Perfect Tense sc upotrebljava Sa stjedecim prilozima: ever, yet (not yen,
alread.y ... since fill:.. a[vYm:§... recentlv.
• be ner written 10 you? (Da Ii tlje on ikada pisao?)
• "Have you ever been to New York", asked Selma. "No, I've never been in this
huge town."
• I-lave they alrcndy seen that famolls film?
• My sick friend has been in bed March
Napofllena:TreiJa imati na lIIlIlI cia adllcr/} sillce trazi doplIIw odrectenil71 vremenOIll, tj.
tackol11 U pOll/enu/om vremellll, l1ek011l vremens/wl7l odrec/nicom, (s'ince
Dctobel; s'/nee SUllday itd.) a da sc adverb lor doplIl?java vrcmenolll /wje
izrazava t/"{{j(l/(je (for two "veeks, lor three months, for a couple of hOllrs)
4. The Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense
Trajni pedckt se u potvrdnom obliku pravi od perfekta p0l110cnog gJagola "to be" i
pmticipa prczenta glagola koji zelimo upotrijebiti .
.. I (you, they) have been_playing (teaching, erving, cutting driving itd.)
.. I-Ie (she) has been playing (teaching, crving cutting driving itd.)
Upitni obHk gradi se upotrebom upitnog oblika perfekta pomocnog glagola "to be"
kojem se dod a particip prczenta glagola koji zelimo upotrijebiti.
• I-lave J (you .we they) been plaYing (teaching, crYing cutting. driving)?
• Has she (he) been plaYing (tcDching, clying cuning. driving)?
Odricni ohlik tvori se dodavanjcm participa prezenta glagola koji zctilTIO upotrijebiti
odricnom obliku perfekta pomocnog glagola to be.
a Uyon, we they) have not been playing (teaching. cryjng cutting drivjng)
• She (he) has not been playing (teaching clying cB1ting driving).
Odricllo - upitni nhlik gratli sc lako SIO sc odricno -upitnom obliku perrekta p011locnog
gJagoJa "to be" dodaje particip prezenta glagola koji zelimo upotrijcbiti.
• Have r (you we they) not been playing teaching crying, cuttitlg driving'!
• 1-1as she (he) nQl been playing teaching crying cutting driving?
Napomena: Ne ,<;l1l1jell1o 2aboraviti da sc glagolski oMici frajnog pel:/ekta mogu
upotrijebiti i II saze/om obliku. I've, (shej been playing, (teaching,
C/ying, cutting, driving - odnos/1o J haven't (he - shej hasl? 'f been playing,
teaching, C1ying, cutting, driving. Haven '( I (we, YOll, they) been playing,
(teaching, cutting, Clying, driving)?
Upotrcba
]. Ovim se vremcnom oznacava raelnja koja je poccla prije trenutka njenog
spominjanja i trajc do sadasnjosti tj. do trenutka bela se 0 toj radnji govori. Vjerovatno
6e se radnja i dalje nastaviti. Nag/asak je na trajanju, tj duzini trajanja, Mi u nasem
jeziku nemamo ovaj gJagolski obhk pa mogu nastati ocirc(1ene poteskoce prilikom
prevodenja na eng\eski jezik.
• I have been writin.ll.a report since 10 a.m.
• She has been singing for two hours.
• The parents are happy that their daughter.llilliJ2.een st\ldying all day,
• She hates this kind of weather - it has been rQiillngJor ninc hOllrs.
2. Kada se ovaj gJagolski oblik upotrebljava bezjasne naznake vremena onda on izrazava
generalnu, opeu aktivnost i radnju koJa se odncdavno odvija.
• I have been about this ditTicult problem.
· An my students have been stui:lyiIJz-very hard and I'm proud of it.
• Some people have been tryinZJo play basketball with no success.
e Hasn't she been \vdting the report?
3. Kacl se radi 0 izvjesnom broju glagola narocito to live, to work, to teach, gotovo
i da nema nikakve razlike izmcdu upotrebe Present Perfect Tense Continuous
(Progressive) i Present Perfect Tense Simple.
25
.. I have been living in New York since 1993 iIi
6 I have lived in New York since 1993.
• He has been working for this company for twenty years iii
.. He has worked for this company for twenty years.
e [ have been teaching English since 1960. iii
.. I have taught English since 1960.
4. Izvjestan broj glagola koji oznacavaju stanje subjckta kao sto su: to sit, to stand, to
lie (lezati), to rest, to wait gotovo nikad se ne upotrebljavaju u Present Perfect Simple
vee u Present Perfect Progressive .
.. I have been waitint; f(x my [I'lend since noon .
.. We have been standinl? in the corridor quite a while .
.. Martha has been lying- in bed for almost a week .
.. Sbe has been resting all afternoon.
Preostale dvije mogucnosti za iskazivanje sadasnje radnje upotrebom pas iva (The Simple
Present Tense Passive i The Progressive Present Tense Passive) su objasl1jene LI poglavlju
koje se odnosi na pasiv. Ova elva vremena pasiva se upotrebljavaju u istim okolnostima
i pod istim uvjetil11a kao j odgovarajuce vrijeme u aktivu, samo sto su upotrijebljeni
oblici pasiva a ne obtici aktiva.
26
• Peter is given some apples.
• The book is being read by Illy students.
• The !lumber o/the studellts is limited .
.. Shoes are being made in this factOl:Y
• SOllie books are given to myfj·fend Azra.
• The letter is being written by my [ather.
VJEZBE
Prepisi date recenice i pri tom ad glagola u zagradi upotrijebi Present Simple iii Present
Progressive Tense u skladu sa pravilima njihove upotrebe.
1. Look at these two girls! They (talk) quite a long time.
2. My parents nevver (read) after ten p.111. They (go) to work early every morning.
3. He is now in an Italian restaurant and he (have) his dinner.
4. Maria usually (drink ,- negative) a lot of coffee. At the moment she (drink) quite a
bit. She probably has a hcndache.
5. I seldom (meet) him these dnys. He is husy nnd he rarely (go out).
6. Where arc they? Can'l you sec them? They ( sit) in the corner over there. That's
their usual place. They often (sit) there.
7. He is [! famous writer and (write) a new novel.
8. The students are at schoo!. Maria is in her class and she (write).
9. What Ali usually (drink)? I think he (drink negative) any alcohol, he only (drink)
soda or mineral water.
10. What (look at)? I (look at) these wonderful paintings over there.
II. Who Anna ( sit) with over there? I think she (sit) with her boyfriend.
12. Mary generally (sleep) in the afternoon, but she (sleep ·-negative) although it is 4
p.m.
13. Do you often speak English'? Yes I (speak) that language whenever I have an
oppOltunity.
14. Look tit them! Some students (stand), some of them (sit) and some even (run). I
wonder what they (do)"
15. Where he usually (work) ? I think he (work) in a very high building on the 20th
floor. And what (do) now? As a computer programmer he (program) something
new. He (work) full time or part time? Programmers usually (work) full time.
16. What he (look for)'? I think he (look for) a nice tie. He has a paIiy.
]7. Is Maria a waitress? Yes, she is. She (be) in the restaurant now. She (serve) a few
customers. One customer (give) her a good tip. This customer is her good friend and
he often ( come) there and (give) her good tips.
18. My rather (drink) two cups of tea every morning. Right now he (drink) a cup of tea.
19. Is Elizabeth (sit) over there? Yes, of course. She (talk) 10 her husband, obviously
not very friendly. Maybe they two (discuss) or even (quarrel) about something. I
know their relationship (be) not very good.
20. Our teacher never (smoke), but look at him, he (stand) in the backyard and (smoke)
one cigarette after another. He mllst be very nervous for some reason.
21. "You (listen - interrogative) to me" asks the teacher" Yes, we (be). We (listen) to
you because we are vety interested in this topic."
22. Mohammad (study) on Sunday, but he never (do) it on Friday. Today is Friday and
of course he (study ~ negative).
23. I do not agree with my brother. He (talk) nonsense. Maybe he is nervous.
27
24. \Vho usually (help) your mother at home? My rather (do), of course. J suppose he
(help) her now, although he is very tired, because he (work) all day long every day.
25. You regularly (pay -intcrrogntive) your rent? Of course, I (do) but my boyfriend,
who (live) with me ahvays (puy) half ortbe rent.
26. What (eat)? Can't you see'? I (cat) French fries. They (be )delicious.
27. What you (wait for) '! I (\vait for) IOrlhc bus which n!ways (stop) here.
28. Where he (go (0)" What he (look [(ll').l don'l know. He (be) here and you can ask
him about it.
29. My brother (like) German. That's \-vhy he (take) German lessons twice a week: on
Tuesday and all Friday. Tod::!y is Friday and he (have) Germaan lessons,
30. Whose number (look up) in the telephone book? I need to ask Mark about this problem
but I don't know his telephone number. So, J (look up) his number,
28
PROSLOST
U engleskom jeziku, u poredenju sa bOS311skim, ima mnogo vise l11ogucnosti za
izrazavanje proslih radnji, dogadanja i stanja. Sve te mogllcnosti treba spomcnuti i
obrazloziti kako hi se stckle preciznije i pouzc\anije predstave, sto ce rezultirati
pravilnijom upotrebom gJagolskih oblika za kazivanje proslosti na engleskom jeziku.
1. The Present Perfect Simple Tense
OV1111 vremcnom veoma se cesto iskazuje p1'0513 radnja koj<1 se dc-sila u nedefiniranom,
neodrcc1enom, nespomcl1utom, nepodrazumljevEll1ol11 pros 10m vrcmcnskom okviru.
Buduci cia se OVi111 vremenom testa iskazuje i sadasnjost njegovi oblici i upotreba Sli
poblizc obrazloz,eni u poglavlju koje se odnosi na sadasnjost.
2. The Present Perfect Progressive Tense
The Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense takoc1er se koristi kako za iskazivanje
saciasnjc, tako i za isknzivanjc prosle mcJnje. Njegovi oblici i upotreba takOll"er Sll
obrazlozeni u pog\avlju sto se oclnose 11a saclasnjost.
3. The Historic (Dramatic) Present Tense
Pros lost se u engJeskom, kao i 1I nascm jeziku, moze izraziti sadasnjim vremenom, jer
se njegovom upotrcbom postize veca dramaticnost, privJaci veea paznja slusalaca,
ostvaruje veca tenzija, postize bolja k011centracij[l i govornika i slusalaca. Ovakva
mogucnost izrazavanja proslosti spomenuta .Ie u poglavlju koj; se odnosi na upotrebu
sadasnjih vremcna.
****
BudllCi da su tri l11ogucnosti za izrazavanje proslih radnji vee obrazlozene II poglavlju 0
sadasnjosti potrebno .Ie spomenuti i objasniti i druge nacine iskazivanja proslosti: the
Past PerFect Tense (Simple i Continuous - Progressive), would + Infinitive, the Past
Participle i clrllge.
29
PAST TENSE
Postoje dva aspekta ovog vrcmena kao uostalom i u drugim engJeskim vrcmcnima: Past
Tense Simple i Past Tense Continuous (Progressive). Izmedu ova dva aspckta - Dei to "'-
postoje i formalne i semanticke razlike. Formalne razlikc se odmah uocavaju (I worked
i I was working) a semanticke treba posebno obrazloziti. U "continuous" ("progressive")
aspektu uvijek nagiasena je duzina trajanja radnje i to gotovo uvijek ima znacaj kao i
sailla radnja.
4. Past Tense Simplc
Oblikuje se na elva l1a6ina. Kad pravilnih glagola gradi se tako cia se infinitivu glagola
dada nastavak -ed. Pri tome u glagolu nas1aju iste one promjene koje Sli spomcnutc pri
objasnjavanju tvorbe participa pcrfekta,jer pravilni glagol imaju iJentican obiik za Past
Simple Tense i Past Participle. Za nepravilne glagole Past Simple Tense se mora uciti
napamet, posto nema postojanih i dosljednih pravila 0 njihovoj tvorbi.
Znaeajno je istn6i da se nepravilni giagoli cesto upotrebljavaju i u LlSmenOI11 i u pisanol11
kOl11uniciranju, paje bitno da sc njihovi obliei u Past Tens-u sto prije nauee napamet.
U Past Tens-u glagoli mase ne dodaju nikakv1 nastavei u trecem lieu jednine kakav je
slucaj u Present Simple Tens-u, pa se jedan te istj obUk koristi za sva liea jednine i
mnozine.
Potvrdni ohlik pravilnih glagoJa pravi se dodavanjem nastavka -ed, a kod nepravilnih
glagola potvrdni oblik je identiean za sva liea jcdnine i mnozine i on se mora pamtiti.
Donjih nekoliko primjera nepravilnih glagola pokazuju oblike koji se moraju pamtiti.
• to go to be }Yflli
• to give gave to have had
• to bring l2.rmuili.! to come
• to write wrote to understand understood
Upitni oblik pravilnih i nepravilnih glagola gradi se pomo6u oblika did koji se
stav1ja isprcd subjckta i kojem se zatim dodn intlnitiv upotrijebUenog giagola bez
"to" .
• J2i..d you go to school yesterday'?
• I2.i.d write an the \ctters'?
• lli..d they giy(' any nwney?
e lli.d :\ZP.1 \'Iring hcr \'lag':
I2lli you ask your teacher about it?
D.i.d she inyite you to the part(:
I2i.d she pby tennis:
Did yisit his friend E>J.d'?
Odricni oblik pravilnih i nepravilnih g\agoJa, gradi se pomocu preterita odricnog
oblika glagola to do kojem se doda infinitiv upotrijebljcnog glagola bez "to"
e He didn't go to school yesterday. The teacher did not ask him.
e She did not write all the !etters. She did not invite us to the pmiy.
• They didn't give me any money. She did not play tcnnis yesterday.
• Azra did not bring her bag. Mirza didn't visit his friend Esad.
Odricno-upitni ohlik pravilnih i nepravilnih glagola gracli se od upitno-odricnog
oblika preterita glagola to do kojem se doda infinitiv upotrijebljenog glagola.
• Didn't he gQ to school yesterday? Didn't the teacher
• Dill she not wrik all the letters? Didn'j she invite us to the party?
• .l2idn.J. they give me some money? lli.d she yesterday?
• Didn'! Azra bring her bag? Didn't Mirza visil his friend John?
Napomena: Jz gOr1U'ih primjera vidi se da se oblik glagala dM not maze
lljJotreb(javati i 11 sazetoJlJ i If PllllOIII ohlikll.
Upotreba
Simple Past Tense upotrebljava se:
1. Za radnju koja se zl1vrsila u proslosti i ne proteze sc do sadasnjeg trenutka. Uz
ovakve rccenice se iii izricito upotrebljavaju ili podrazumijevaju prilozi vremena
koji definiraju tu preslost kao: yesterday, three days ago, last week (month, year,
Sunday), in the year 2000, in March, in October, three weeks ago .
.. I-Ie hill.l.ght a new tie for his father yesterday.
We didn't travel anywhere last year.
• There Yil!..S. a storm on the east coast on Sunday.
• They visited their friend last Friday.
• She proudly llS her new car,
• Everybody this hero who had saved a child from death.
• The flood was so dangerous that many people had lost their lives,
2. Za kazivanje istovremene radnje pri slaganju vremena u zavisnoj, aka je u glavnoj
recenici upotrijebljen Past Tense,
• She sang because she fill very happy.
• He washed his face ,because it was diliy,
• When J came home I fu.J.m.d...a letter on my kitchen table.
• They all fclt they were very important in this situation .
.. I tb.mJght you were at home.
e They wrote that they at the seaside .
.. I kncw for sure that he.w.u.s. very unhappy.
31
e He said that all students were afraid of a man with a gun.
• We all ~ be wa$. a Russian.
3. Za radnju u zavisnoj recenici nakon izraza: I wisit, if, as if, as though, it's time,
suppose, if only.
· I wish you ,"vere in my shoes.
• I wIsh I.lilld as much money as you do.
o Ifwe were in time at school, the teacher would not blame us.
• You behave as ifhe ~ responsible for your bad luck.
• Suppose you knew all the events.
• If only you we!],';; not so angry with your daughter.
• He works as if he ~ very tired and hungly.
• Its reaHy high time the children went to school.
4. Za kazivan,ic proslc i zavrScnc radnje koja se desila kada je neka druga racinja
izrazena sa Past Tense Progressive bila u toku.
• She came in when I was playing the piano.
o My mother was reading a book when I ~ t h e room.
o They were playing basketball when a spectator rushed in the hall.
· I was waiting in the hall when somebody ~ my name.
• We were going home when a car ~ in front of us.
• She was studying mathematics ",vhen the doorbell rang.
eWe were eat in!?, our dinner when somebody shouted "Fire".
• I-Ie was having his breakfast when w e ~ .
5. The Past Progrcssive Tense
Ovo vrijeme se u potvrdnoll1 obHku pravi ad preterita pomocnog glago!a "to he' i
partidpa prczcnta glHgola koji ze!imo upotrijebiti. (Promjcne kat! llckih glagola pri
tvorbi participa prezcnta objasnjene su ranije).
I (he, she, it) was playing, cutting, smiling, carrying, studying, writing, itd.
WC ( you, they) were playing, cutting, smiting, carrying, studying, writing.
Odricni oblik gradi se dodavanjem negacije not potvrdnom obliku, izmed'u pOll1ocnoga
glagola (""as, were) i participa prezenta.
e I (he she it) was not playing cutting smiling. carrying stUdying writing
• We (you they) were not playing cutting. smiling carrying studying itd.
Upitni oblik gradi se inverzijom, ~ j . zamjenom mjesta subjekta i pomocnoga glagola
(was, were)
1,7
Was J (he, she, it) playing, cutting, smiling, carrying, studying, writing?
Were we (you, they) playing, cutting, smiling, carrying, studying, writing?
Odricno-upitni oblik tvori se clodavanjem negacije not upitnom obliku. Negacija se
stavlja izmedu subjekta i participa prezenta upotrijebljanoga glagola.
e Was T (he. she it) not playing. cutting smiling, carrying studying
o Were we (YO!! they) noL.playing. cutting, smiling carrying. St!ldying? itcl.
Napomel1a:Cesto s'e lIlJ?jesto pUl1ih ob/ika ad glagola "to be" upotreb/javaju saieti
oblici If odricnol1l i odrihw-upitnolJl obliku.
• J (he, she, it) wasn [playing, clitting, smiling, ca!'l:l'ing, studying, writing.
• We (YOl!, they) weren i playing, CUffing, smiling, c(fI"J'ing, studying, writing
• r1 (he, she, it) playing, cutting, smiling, canying, stu{(ving, writing?
• Weren '/ we ()lOll, they) playing, cutting, smiling, c(lf")'ing, studying, ltd.
Upo!reba
1. Ovo se vrijeme upotrebljava za proslu radnju koja je trajala duze iii krace vrijeme.
Vrijemc trajanja moze biti izricito naglaseno: for two hours, the whole day, from nine
a.m. till four p,m., a long time, ali se vremenski okvir i njegova duzina mogu naznaCiti
kontekstom. U svakom slucaju naglaseno je trajan,ie prosle radnje.
• She was reading a book for six holll's without any break.
• We were traveling a long time from New York to Denver.
• They were building that beautiful bridge for over three years
• mathematics till midnight.
• How long were they writing their reports yesterday?
• I was wai1.i.ug here for half an hour to meet my boss,
2. Past Progressive Tense upotrebljava se za radnju koja je pocela II proslost!, trajala
odredeno vrijeme i bila u toku kad se dogodila neka druga prosla radnja izrazena pomocu
Past Simple Tense.
• I was writi.ng"a letter when my friend !.d!.lkd me.
• We were playing cards when they our room.
• She was talking with her mother when I called her.
• He was sitting in his room when they
• They were singing when Jim came in
• I was eating my breakfast when the telephone rang.
3. Ovim vremenom izrazavajll se dvije iIi vise para\elnih radnji koje su istovrerneno
trajale bez obzira na vrijeme njihovog pocetka i zavrsetka.
• While we were playi'llt.chess, Bob and Jim were playing tennis.
• We were and our friends were watching us.
33
When my father was smoking., r was reading while. my mother and Jane were
talking
5 Nero and Tarik were programming a llC\V program and their two friends were
waiting and talking.
e 'While I "vas cleanin¥-I11Y bedroom, my mother \,\I8S cooking the dinner for us and
my father was reading the newspaper.
• The teacher was explaining the usc of English Past Tense and all the students WCJ.:s;.
listening carefuUy.
4. Past Progressive Tense takoder se upotrebljava 1I zHvisllOj rccenici umjcsto Present
Progressive Tens-a ako su oslvareni uvjcti za slaganjc vrcl11ena.
• They knew that we were writinJLour homework.
c 1 thought she was riding her bike but actually she \-vas sitting in ber room.
• He silld that he was playiIlg the violin in his study.
• Her brother claimed. that he and his girlfriend were not drinking at all.
• He wan.kd to tell us what they were dojJ,ULin the schoolyard .
. • The police offker noticed the car which was stallding on the pavement.
6. The Simple Past Perfect Tense
Ova vrijel11e postoji i u nasem jeziku, ali ga 111i upotrebUavamo daJeko ljedc.
Razlika je, medutim, i u cinjenici da englcski jezik posjeduje dva aspekta ovog vrel11ena
(simple i progressive - continuous), dok bosansld jezik Be poznaje takve aspekte u
OVOI11 kao ni u drugim gragolskim vremcnima.
05110vna karaktcristika ovog vremcna je da ono oznacava proslu radnju koja sc desila
prije neke druge proslc I'adnje.
Pluskvampcrfekt (Simple) sc u potvrdnom obliku gradi od p'reterita glagola to have j
participa perfekta gJagola koj i zelil110 upotrijebiti.
• I (you she he we (hey) had played smiled (nugbt. c;:lrrit' ..d, studied.
Upitlli oblil( gradi se inverzijom potvrd11og oblika tj. zamjenom mjesta subjekta j
predikata.
• Had I {you, he, she, we, they) played cut. smiled taught. carried studied?
Odricni oblil( tVOrl se dodavanjem negacije not iza preterita pomocnoga glagola "to
have"
I (you he she we, they) had not played cut smiled, taught carried studied
Upitno-odricni oblik gradi se od upitno- odricnog oblika preterita pOl11ocnoga
glagola "to have" kojem se doda particip perfekta upotrijebljenoga glagola.
34
• Had r (vou. he. she we. they) 110t played cut sI11iled taught carried studied?
Napo!l1clla: Unu'esto p!lnih oblika ('u;to se IIpotreb(javajll sazet; oblici if potvrdnoJl},
odricl)olll ; odrihlO -llpitnolll obliku.
• I'd (yoll 'el, he'd, she'd, we'd ,they'd) taken played, clIf, smiled, tallght, carried,
studied.
• J (YOll, he, she, we, they) hadn't p!ayed, ClIt, smiled, taught, carried, studied
• Hadn '11 (vall, he, she, we, theJ)p!ayed, Clft, smiled, t(fllght, carried, stlldied?
Upotrcha
1. The Past Perfect Simple Llpotrebljava se da izrazi proslu radnju koja se desila pfije
neke drugc proslc radnjc. To znaci da postoje dvije pros!e radnje od kojih se jedna
desil<l prije od druge. Ta prva radnja izrazava se pluskvampcrfcktorn obicnim, druga
prcteritom.
• She was a\V(1rc that she had forgotten her umbrella at home.
• He h.ad.ls:f! his house before I C1:l.!M there.
• After my mother had spent three weeks in London, she !d.1l11e back home.
• I-Ie his wallet before he reached the subway station.
• Vlhen we arrived the bilihday patiy had already started.
• As soon as they had finished their breakfast, they ran out to play.
• On coming back home he understood that he had fOlJ,;!01tcn to lock the cloor.
• I had lived in Mostar, before IJll.ovcd 10 New York.
• They had spent all their money before their father to them.
2. Ovo vrijeme upotrcbljava se u slaganju vremcna umjesto pretcrita (simple) j umjesto
perfekta (Present Perfect Simple).
• I was told that my brother bad not bought a new house, although he had
promisedJhat to his family.
• They said that they hnc1 nrrived a week ago.
• My friends:tQld me that they had returned home early.
· I lhought I had seen him in the cinema.
• We knew that our uncle had arriy'ed in time.
• He said he_had had no idea ahout the situation in Bosnia.
• They till.d me they had left London Friday morning.
• She .ful.1 somehow that her mother had been in great danger.
• John.s.ai.Q that he hnd received] sent yesterday the telegram.
3. Nakolt izraza: if only, I wish, as if testo sc upotrcbljnva pluskvamperfckt cia izrnzi
nesto sto sc nije ostvarilo u prooslosti.
• I wish I him before.(Poruka: Nisam ga posjctio)
• If only we had known the real situntion in this countly. ( .. Nismo znali .. )
35
• She made so many mistakes as if she had never studied mathematics.
• If only J had met him before.
• He behaved as if he had written the best novel in the entire world.
• I wish we had heaal'd about this earlier
4. Pluskvamperfekt (simple) se upotrebljava i u kondicionalnim recenicama da izrazi
ne5to sto se ocekivalo, pretpostavijaio, ali se nije ostvarilo (irealne pogodbene recenice).
U takvi111 okolnostima se u gJavnoj recenici upotrebljava kondicional prosH .
.. If you bad becn there you would have met them.
• lfwe hadn't given them a ride they would have missed the train.
• We would have done it jf \ve had known this important information.
• He would have caught the bus ifhe had walked a little faster.
"1:lilil she received the letter earlier she would have known what to do.
7. The Past Perfect Progressive Tense
Ovo se glagolsko vrijeme u potvrdnom obliku gra(li ad pluskvamperfekta pOlTIocnoga
glagola "to be" kojem se doda particip prezenta glagola koji zelimo upotrijebiti.
• I (you,she, he, we, they) had been playing, c u t t i n g ~ smiting, teaching, carrying,
studying, stopping, writing.
Upitni oblik gradi se inverzijom potvrdnog oblika lj. zamjcnom mjesta subjekta i
predikata.
• Had I (you, he she, we, they) been playing, cutting, smiling, teaching, canying,
studying, stopping, \vriting?
Odricni oblik pravi se od odricnog oblika p!uskvamperfekta pomocnoga glagola "to
be" i participa prezenta upotrijebljenoga gJagola.
• I (you, he, she we, they) had not been playing, cutting, smiling, teaching, carrying,
studying, stopping, writing.
Odricno-upitni oblik pravimo inverzjjom (tj. zamjenom mjesta subjekta i predikata)
odricnog oblika pluskvamperfekta trajnog .
.. Had I not (had you not, had he nOl, had she not had we not had they not) been
playing, cutting, smiling, teaching, carrying, studying, writing?
Napomena: Umjesto punih oblika cesto, se pLfu i izgovaraju sazeti pofvrdni i odricno-
upitni ab/iei.
e 1 {JJou, he, she, we, the)) Iwdn t been playing, cutting, smiling, teaching, canying,
stopping writing.
6 Hadn 'l 1 (Vall, he, she, we, they) been playing, cutting, smiling, teaching, canying,
stopping, l,vriting.
Upotreba
1. Kada zelimo izraziti radnju kojaje pocela u prosiosti prije neke druge prosie radnje i
koja je trajala duze vrijeme i vjerovatno se nastavila u trenutku pominjanja druge,
upotrebljavamo pluskvamperfekt trajni. U oYom vremenu je izrazito znacajno
naglasavanje trajanja radnJc pri ccrnu to naglasavanje ima izrazitu sernanticku
vrijednost.
• He discllssed the film he had been direc1ing
• I ~ her cat, which she had been carrying in her arms.
• The train arrived when they had been talking about the accident.
• Mary showed me the report she had been writjng.
• The composer ~ il part of the symphony he had been composjng.
Napomena:Ako hi se 1/ gon!iim prin!jerima upotrijebio obic:ni wJ'!iesto trajnogpluskvam-
petfekta, profll{jen;/o bi se z!l{{(\el1je recenice, Jto pOfl'rctl{je semantiC/w
razliCitosl tih dl'iju struktura. Sljede!:; prillljeri ce pofl'rditi tIl konstatac(ju.
• He disclIsscd the film he had been directjtlf{ (Raspral'Uao je 0 filmll koji je on
rezirao. Reiiranje jejo.s' II toku, film jos nije zavrSen)
Me(tutim: He discuysed the jilm he bad directed. ( Ra:-:ipravljao je 0 filmu koji je on
f'dirao. Filmje zavrScn, l'eZi/'wy'cje zavl'seno.)
• MCllJ! showed me the report she had been writing. (lviw)! mije pokazala iZlfeitaj
kojije nisala' izvjdtaj nUejos gOlOv}
• Ali: Mwy shol-ved me the repo/'! she had written (lvfal:v 11l; je pokazala iz\jdtaj
{(oji je n{lDisala. lzvje.<;f({i.je zavl'sen.)
2. Pluskvamperfekt trajni upotrebljava se pri slaganju vremena u zavisnoj recenici akc
je u glavnoj upotrijebljen preterit obicni. U tim okolnostima pluskvamperfekt zamjenjuje
i tra.ini perfel{t i traJni preterit.
e He said that he had been playing tennis with his girlfriend.
• We were told that they had been writing.,a report on violence.
·1 knew she had been livjogjn a very bad apartment.
• They expected th8t their son bad been studyjng the whole clay.
• She sill.d that bel' brother had been slaying in a nice botel.
8. Used to + Infinitive
Ovaj oblik upotrebljava se cesto. Njime se izrazava prosla radnja iii stanje, to jest prosla
navika, prosia ponavljana radnja. Izraz" Used to + infinitiv se na bosanski jezik prevodi
37
sa izrazima "obiell0 sam + partieip prosli: nekad sam + partieip prosli; uobicavao sam
da + prezcnt; i111ao sam da + prczcnt glagola koji zelimo upotrUebiti.
• My father used to play the guitar, when he \vas a young boy.
• He doesll't drink cotlee now, but he lIsed to drink a lot of coffee when he was
younger.
• We used to meet every Saturday a few years ago.
• This is the place where we used to play when we lived nearby.
• My aunt used to come velY oflen to visit me.
• When we were at the seasicle, we very early.
o vVhcn she \vas a young girl she llSSd 10 be keen on reading.
• Our parents us to the zoo 011 Saturday.
9. \Vould + infinitiv bez "to"
Glagolskije oblik kojim se moze izraziti prosla, 1l0bicajen3, ponavljana radnja. Ovaj se
oblik l1e koristi kao zamjcna za preterit trajni (progressive), niti za perfekt ni
pluskvaillperfckt trajni vee za njillOve "obiene" oblike. To pokazuje da se '\vould +
infinitiv bez to" upotrebljava za povremcne radnje iIi stanja.
• As I vvorked very hard these days I \Vonld comc home exhausted.
• Our uncle would somctimes 1rll us many interesting stories.
• My father used to work all clay and he would seldom.iilln us for lunch.
• My mother WQ100 always count the money she got back after paying,
• When we lived with our grandpa we .i:Y..Qu!d run in the field every day.
• When Ann was here she }:YQu.1.dJ1clp my mother to prepare meals.
10. The Past Participle
Particip pcrf'ckta takouer sc upotrcbljava da izrazi Zil.Y.illIlU proslu radnju. OV1111 se
participom skracuje vrcmenska rccenica. Primjcri ce pokazati daje ovaj obtik najbolje
prcvoditi 11a bosanski jezik upotrebol11 !lase struktu1'e "kad je", iii "kad se" iii nasim
participol11 pros lim.
• Once it can never be forgotten. ( Kad se jedl10m l1e.sto vidi ne moze se
zaboraviti; iIi lednom viaeno ne zaboravUa se.)
• Warned of possible danger, he changed his attitude. Upozoren (kad je upozoren)
na mogucLl opasnost, promijenio je svoj stav.
• Th.l.d to do his job, he started at once. (Kad InU je receno - kad su mu reldi da 1'adi
svoj posao, odmah je poceo.
• This done. he asked me to leave the room. (,Kadjc to uradio t1'azio je da odem iz
sobel·
e Recovered from his surprise, he mentioned some excuse. (Kad se oporavio -
oporavivsi se - od iznenadenja pomenuo je neko izvinjenje.
o This heard, he relt very happy, (Kad je to - clIvsi to - bio je ... )
• Once done, it can never be undone. (Kad se oe5to uradilo nikad se ne maze
promijeniti. Jec!nom llcinjeno se ne moze promijeniti.)
J 1. Having + Past Participle; having been + PHst Participle
Dvn gornjn glagolskn oblika upotrcbljnv<lju sc clll iznlzc proslu i Z<lvrsenu radnju koja
se dcsila prijc nckc drllgc profile radn,ie. Ocito ave strukturc mogu zamijeniti
pluskvamperfekt. Struktura "having + past participle" lma obiljezja aktiva, dok struktura
"having been + past participle" ima svojstva pasiva.
12. Having + Past Participle
• I'laving visited my friend, 1 went to the university. (Nakon sto sam ..
• I-laving recovered from the shock, he explained the whole situation.
• Having found out the truth, we went home satisfied,
• Having done all that was necessary, I decided to go to bed.
• Baving warned me not 10 go there, she left my room.
• I-InvjlULn,S.!s...Q.Q me about the event, he went back to his oifice.
• [-laving written all the letters, we decided to take a rest.
• the whole situation, the boss expressed his satisfaction.
13. Having heen + Past Participle
• H,lving been enc()l!!"(lbrecl by his success, he worked even harder.
• l'lavinl! been worn out by hunger and torture, they decided to give up.
• Having been told what to do, we decided to work
• J-Inving been asked about the matter, the prisoner promised to te!! the truth.
• Having been iJl1r.Qduced to my new boss, I asked him about my duties.
• Having been weI! tlllu;ilil, we had no trouble in solving the problem.
• l:h1Virur been badly wounded, the victims had to st<ly in hospital.
.. Having been arrested the robber confessed all his robberies.
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14. Being + Past Participle
Struktura "being + Past Participle" koristi se da iskaze prostu i zavrscnu radnju koja se
dogodila prije neke druge prosie radnje. To znaCi da i ova struktura ima funkciju
pluskvamperfekta i obiljezja pas iva.
• Being recovered hom the illness Mark went home with his 'wife.
e £king interviewed politely, Anita expected to get a job in that firm.
o Being seen in front of tbe bote!, the thief couldn't run away.
• Being visited by all her friends, Azra felt very happy and satisfied.
• Being informed about the situation the boss made his final decision.
o Being given orders, we started at once.
o Being wounded velY badly, the soldiers had to stay in hospital.
• well tl1Uili!, she never made mistakes during the procedure.
Preostale tri mogucnosti kazivanja prosIosti The Simple Past Tense Passive i The
Progressive (Continuous) Past Tense Passive, te The Simple Past Perfect Tense Passive
objasnjeni su u poglavlju koje se odnosi na tvorbu i upotrcbu vremena paslva. Ova
vremena pas iva upotrebljavaju se u uvjetima, u kojima se upotrebljavaju oclgovarajuca
vremena ali se umjesto oblika za aktiv upotrebljavaju oblici pasiva.
BUDUCNOST
na engleskom jeziku buducnost se moze izr3ziti na mnogo vise naCina nego na nascm.
Postoji, zapravo, osam mogllcnosti cia se izrazi buduca radnja:
I.the Simple Future Tense,
2.the Future Progressive Tense,
3.the Present ProgrcssiveTensc,
4.thc Present Simple Tense,
5.the Simple Present Perfect Tense,
6.the future Perfect Tense,
7.the going to + Infinitive j
8.to be about to + Infinitive.
1. The Simple Future Tense
lzrazava radnju koja ce se dogoditi nakon trenutka u kojem 0 ojoj govorimo.
Potvrdni oblik gradi se od gJagola shall i will !cojima dodajemo intinitiv upotrijebljenoga
glagola. Shall sc upotrebljava sa prvim licem jednine i mno±ine (1, we ), a will sa 5vi111
ostalim licima. MCGutim, u govornom jeziku, narocito u americkoj verziji sve vise se
upotrebljava wil! za sva licajednine i mooline.
• I (we) shall pIny. cnt smile teach carry stlldy. write itd.
·)'011 (be she it HleY) will play ClIt smile teach corry, study write.
Odricni oblik gradi se dodavanjem negacije not giagotima shall i wilL
• 1 (we) sholl no!' play. ent smile teach corry study write
• You (he she it they) will not play, 1'111- smile teach, cany study write
Upitni oblik gradi se inverzijom potvrdnog oblika.
• Shall I (we) plaY cut smile le8cb eany study write?
• Will you (they he she, it) play C!lt. smile teoch corry. study write?
Odricno-upitni oblik tvori se dodavanjem negacije not upitnom obliku. Negacija not
stavlja se izmedu subjekta i infinitiva glago\a.
• Shall I 0Yn not play, ('Ill smile 1eDcb cany study write?
• Will you (j-hey he she it) 1101' play cut smile leach cony study, wrile?
Napomena: U c/ana.<,njoj upotrebi ovogvremel1a, Ilama/o tl all1erickom govoni, najcesce
se ujJotreb(java saieta forma u potvrdnom, od"icnom i
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ob/ikll. 1 '11, (he'll, she 'f! lFC"!I, YOl! 'II, fhey '!I) pia); ClI!, slIIile, tcach, ccmy.
write. I (he, she, it. 'FC. YOIl, {lie}) 'POll 't play, Clll, smile, teach, cany,
study, write) i IYou 't I (yOI/, he, she. it ,we, the)) pili)', cut, smile ,teach,
c{m)" Sll/ely write?
Upotreba
1. Futur obicni ujJotrcbljava sc za uobicajcnu radnju. dnkIe radnju koja ce se
dogoditi na1<.ol1 njenog pominjana.
• I know us,
e My parents \vi!! come any mOlllent
• Vi/ill he be here tomorrow'?
• I hope the shops \vill be open at eight tomorrow morning.
· I shall (will) begin my homework as soon as 1 can.
2. Ovim vremenom maze se I::ra::ifi lIall(jera iii :;('(jo.
• As he is my good friend I will ( I'll ) help him for sure.
• She needs me and I will ( I'll ) be here for her, no matter what.
• If you want us to, we wi!! do tbat for you.
• As the bus is too late we will walk home, we will not \-vait any longer.
3. Kada se glagol shall upotrijebi LI drugom lieu jednine iii mnozine (you shall) onda
taj oblik ne izrazava futur vee zapovijest, iii ncku prijetnju iii, cak i obeCalljc.
• Zapovijcd: You shall wr.i.t£ your homework right now,
You shall gQ homc at Ollce.
• Obc¢nnje:
• Priictllja'
You shall ask your Lather about it.
You shall tcllmc the truth, or.
r promise you, VOll shall get your money back.
You shaH have your cake, for sure.
You shall be awarded for this heroic action.
You vcry high price if' you do it.
You shall have a lot or trouble if you go there.
Napomf!!la: Shall se moze upotrijebili i u rl"ei;clllliclijednil1e; lII!1oiinc (hc. she, it, they)
ali !Ill! se fuc/a lIlIeko/i/w prolllUeni U tom se s/U(;({ju lie izrazava
obicno buduCl10st ve(' rUde/lOst i odlllka do ce all ili Olla iii ani
i:,;vrSili odre(tene radnje. Ovakva upotreba je lIaroeilo cesta 11 pravl10m
dokwllcntima.
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o He (she, tliey) shall.f1giJt/or his (he/; their) rights as long as hersheY lives (they
live).
• They shailnot go there any more because II is dangerous.
e He (she) shall help you anyway; YOll are his (he/) ji'iend.
e The buyer shall pay 30% a/the lola/ in thejirs!
2. The Future Progressive Tense
U potvrdnom oblil{1J OYO se yrijeme gradi dodayanjem pHrticipa prezenta
upotrijebljenoga glagoJa ruturu pomocnoga g\ago\a "to be".
e I (we) shall be playing clIHing smjling teaching, carrying. stlldying writing....
o I-Ie (she you. they) wjll he playjng cuttjng sl11ili,!JJL..leaching studying"
Odricni oblik gracli sc clodayanjem negacijc not potyrdnom obliku. Taj not se stavlja
iza pomocnoga glagola (shall, will)"
• I (we) shall Dol he nhviJ.ll! c!lain\{ smiling teDching c:wryinl! writing
will no! be smiling !eachjnu, writing
Upitni oblik pravi se inyerzijol11 potyrdnog oblika, tj. zamjenol11 I11jesta subjekta i
pOl11ocnog glagola shall will
• Sholl I (we) be pinyin£" CUlling- smjlior: j"ciwbjng cQrryjnfl
• Will you she) be playing euning smiling. j"cucbing, writing')
Odricno-upitni ohlik pray! se dodavanjem negacije not upitnom obliku. Taj not se
stavlja izmec.1u pomocnoga glagola shall ( will) i pomocnoga glagola be.
• Shall J (we) !lot he playing, (cutting silliling leachjng cany)ng writing)?
• Will YOIl (they she be) not h(' playing (c!!t!'jng smjling teaching, carryjng),)
Napo!1lel/a: C'esto se IIpotreh{jaV({jll i sazeti oblici II po!vrdnim, i odric;lIo -
Itpifnim rec\!l1icama.
• 1 '1/ (VOti "II, ·we "II, they '/1, he 'Il, she'll) be playing, clltting, smiling, teaching,
carrying, stU(Z),llg.
• J (we) shall"t he pia)'ing, ctltting, smiling, tcacliing, canying, and writing.
• You (they, he, sht') won't be playing, cuttil/g, smiling, cao:l'il1g, and wriring.
• Shan't I (we) be playing, clitting, smiling, c([I"]ying, iVfiring, and studying?
• rVon 't .1'0/1 (they, she, he) be playing, clitting, slIIiling, carlying, and .,vf/ring?
Treba napomcnuti: SliWI 't sc lIopce ne koristi II all1crickoll1c cngleskom jcziku"
Upotrcba
1. Ovim se vremenOI11 oznacava buducn radnja za koju sc zna iIi ocekuje da ce potrajati
cluze iii haee vrijeme. Naglasava se trajanje radnjc, a ne samo njeno buduce trajanje.
• On Friday IJlJ2e studyinG English irregular verbs.
• They'll be working the whole day tomorrow.
s They say it will be raining all afternoon.
43
Q 1 wonder what Azra will be doing the next day.
• Will he be traveling the whole night?
• My mother wi1l be watching TV after six o'clock.
2. Buduce trajno vrijeme koristi sc da izrazi radnju koja cc tnljati prijc, a i poslije
nekog buduceg vremenskog period:!. Taj buduri vremenski period maze se izricito
spomenuti, a moze se i podrazumijevati kad kontckst to nalaze.
~ When you call me 1'1\ be playing footbalL l'1l be playing for at least four hours .
.. He says he'll be working hard when we come to see him,
.. She insists that 1 don't cal! her because she wil! be practicing the Violin .
.. They wi 11 be slandinfl by the window to watch the parade .
.. The whole f ~ l m i l y wil! be waiting at the airport.
.. Will you be waiting for me by when I call you?
3. The Future in the Past Tense
Ovaj glagolski oblikje po svojoj Cormi identican sa kondicionalom prvim. On se gradi
od glagolskih oblika should i would koji111a se doda ioHnitiv upotrijebljcnog glagola.
Pri lome should i would ostaju nepromijenjcni u svim licimajednine i mnozine. Ocito:
oblici futura prosiog i kondicionala prvog identicni su, iako su njihova semanticka
svojstva razlicta.
Potvrdni oolik
• 1 ( we) should play, cut, smile, teach, carry, study, write, read
• You (he, she, it, they) would play, cut, smile, teach, carry, study, write.
Upitni oblik tvori se inverzijom potvrdnog oblika, y. z3mjenom mjesta subjekta i glagola
should i would.
e Should I (we) play, cut, smile, teach, carry, study, write, read?
.. Would you ( they, he, she, it) play, cul, smile, teach, carry, study, write?
Odricni oblik gradi se dodavanjem negacije not izmedu subjekta i glagola should iii
would.
• I (we) should not play, cut, smile, teach, carry, study, write, read.
• You ( they, he, she) would not play, cut, smile, teach, cany, study, read.
Odricno-upitni oblik pravi se od upitnog oblika ovog vremena i od negacije not koja
se stavlja iza subjekta i infinitiva upotrijebljcnog glagola.
• Should I (we) nol play. cut, smile, teach, carry, study, write, read?
• Would you (they, he, she) not play, cut, smile, teach, cany, study, write?
Napomena: Cesto se upotl'ebljavqju i sate!i potvrdni, odricni i odricno-upitni oblici.
• I'd (YOll 'd, he'd, she'd, we 'd) ClIt, smile, teach, CO/'1)1.
• I'd not (ili I shouldn I). you'd not (iii you wottlrln 't), he'd not (he lvollldn 't) she'd
not ( she wouldn't) they'd not (they 'wollldn 't ) play, cut, smi Ie, tench, amy, study.
• Shouldn't 1 (we) play, Cllt. smile, teach, cony, write, read. ask itd?
e Wouldn 'f you (he. she, the}) play, cut, smile. teach, study. write?
Upotreba
Ovaj glagolski oblik Izraz<1va radnju koja se desHa II proslos!, ali kojajc buduca rad11ia
u porcc1cn,iu sa nekom drugom, izrazenorn preteritorn u glavno,i recenici. To znaci
da se futur II ( Future in the Past) upotrebljava pri slaganju vremena i - svakako- u
ncupravtlom govoru.
lako je futur prosli po obliku identican kondicionalu prvom, njihove funkcUe i
semanticke vriJcdnosti sasvim su razliciti. To se ne smije zaboraviti pri prevodenju
tekstova, narocito lileral1lih, sa engleskog na nas jezik. Futur prosli moramo prevoditi
nasim futurom, a engJeski kondicional prevodimo nasim pogodbcnim nacinom.
• I knew he "vould come in time. (Znao sam dn ce on ne da bi dosao)
• They said they would do their job in time. (Rekli su da ee obaviti svoj posao na
vrijeme. Naravno ne cia bi obavili posao na vrijemc.)
• The construction firm clajn@ it would build new, better roads.
(Gradevinska firmaje tvrdila da ce napraviti bolje, nove puteve. Ne da bi napravila
bolje nove puteve)
• The manager s8icl that the promised rew8rcl would be given to her. (Direktor je
rekao da ee joj obecana nagrada biti data. Ne da bi .10.1 obecana nagmda bila data)
• His daughters said they would go to the cinema the-next day. (Njegove keeri su
rekle cia ce sutra iei u kino. Ne cia bi sutra isle u kino.)
• My father knew that I would tell him the truth. (moj otac ... znao da eu mll kazati
istinu).
• They what we would do the following day. (Pitali su nas sta eemo sutra
raditi.
4. The Future in the Past Progressive Tense
Gracli se od fu1'1lra proslog pomocnog glagogla "to be" i participa prezenta glagola
koji ielimo upotrijcbiti. (Moguce promjene u participu pri dodavanju nastavka -"ing
objasnjene Sll HZ Present ContinuoLls (Progressive) Tense.
45
Potvrdni olJlik:
e I (we) should be playing, cutti1lg, smiling, carrying, writing, studying.
• You (they. he, she) would be playing, cutting, smiling, carrying, writing.
Odricni oblik pravi se dodavanjcm negacije not potvrdnome ohliku .
.. I (we) should not be playillg, cutling, smiling, carrying, writing, studying
• You (they, sbe, he) would not be playing, cutting, carrying. smiling.
Upitni oblik gradi se inverzijom potvrdnog oblika tj. zaIl1jenom mjesta subjekta i g!agola
should. \vould.
• Should l (we) be playing, cutting, smiling, carrying, writing, reading?
• Would you (they, he, she) be playing, cutting, smiling, carrying, Writing?
Odricno-upitlli oblik gradi sc dodav<lnjem ncgacije not upitnol11 obliku. Taj not se
stavlja iza subjckta.
• Should 1 ('Ne) not be playing, cutting, smiling, carrying, writing, studying?
• Would you (be, she, they) not be playing, cutting, smiling, carrying. writing?
NapomcTlo j: Saf:eti pOflnlni, odric:ni i odricllo-upilni oblici Sit.
iii
• I'd (vall 'd, he'd. she'd we'd, rhe.1' 'eI) be playing, cutting, smiling, writing.
·1 'el (YOIi 'eI, he'd, she'd . we 'el , they'eI) /lot be playing, clitting, smiling itd.
• J (we) shollldll 't hI.! playing. clitfing, sllIiling. c({!'Iying, writing. studying.
• ShOllldl1 't 1 (we) lVolfle/1! 't YOli (lie, slle, they) be playing, cutting, can:ving itd'!
NapomeJ1a 2: (:esfo se Z(/ PrI'O liccjedllillc i 1lI110Z;ne lfjJotreb{/ava giago/ would
should.
Upotreba
The Future in the Past Continuous (Progressive) upotrebljava $e II istim oko!nostima u
kojimJ se upotrcbljava the Future in the Past Simple s 10m razlikom da jc u trajnom
obliku izrazito naglaseno tra.ianje radnjc. Potrebano jc paziti da sc ova ne
prevodi nasim pogodbenol11 rcccnicama vee nasim futurol11.
• I knew he would be> writing his report. (Znao sam da cc on pisati izvjestaj - ne da
bi on pisao izvjcstaj)
.. They hliLd_lhcy WQ!!ld be doing their job at that time. (Rckli su da 6c tada raditi
svoj posao ne da bi tada radili svoj posao.)
• [--lis daughtel.'S said. they "\IonIc! be plaving at that time. (Njegove kceri su relde cia
6e se one tada igrati ne: cia bi se tada igra!c.)
5.Thc Future Perfect Tense
Ovaj .'iC glagolski oblik 1I potvrdllom obliku gradi oel glagola shall i \vill kojima se
doda infinitiv pcrfekta. A infinitiv perfckta gradi se dodavanjem participa perfekta
gJagoJa koji zelimo upotrijebiti pOl11ocno!TI gbgolu "to have". Upitni i upitno oddeni
. obEci veomCl se rijetko upotrebljavaju pa ill nijc potrebno ovdje navoditi.
Potvrdni ohlik
~ f (we) shall have played, cut, smiled, taught, carried, studied, written.
• You (they, he, she) will have played, cut, smiled, taught, carried,written
Odricni nhlik gradi sc dod(1v<lnjcm ncgacije not potvrdnom obliku.
• I (we) shall have not played, cut, smiled, taught, carried, studied, written.
• You (they, he, she) will not have played, cut, smiled, taught, written.
Upotreba
The Future Perfect Tense upotrcbljava se da izrazi rndnju kojn ce biti zavrsena u nekom
trenutku u buducnosti iii ncposrcc!no prije l-og proslog trenutka. Potrebano je paziti pd
prevodenju ovog g!agolskog ob!ika,jer mi nelll<lmo ovo vr!jcl1lc. Pri prevodenju ovog
oblika treba da koristimo naSl! rijee vcc koja nagovjcstava okvire karakteristicne za
futur perfckta.
• I shall have passed my exams by this time next year. (Ja ell vee po!oziti 111o.1e ispite
do ovog vrcmena sljedcce godine)
• They will have written their report by the end of this week. (Oni ce vec napisati
svoj izvjciitaj do kraja ove sedmicc).
• She will have heard this news by the end ofthe next day. (Ona ce vec cuti tu vijest
do kraja sUccleceg dana).
• We'll not have read this novel by Sunday. (Do nedeljc necemo nwci ... )
6. The Present Simple Tense
Ovo vrijeme se takoder cesto koristi za izrazavanje un8prijed planirane buduee radnje.
Objasnjenja 0 tvorbi i upotrcbi ovog vremena za isk8zivanje buduce radnje data su uz
Present Perfect Tense Simplc,
47
7. The Present Progressive Tense
Kao u gomjem slucaju i Present Continuolls (Progressive) Tense moze se upotrijebiti
da se izmzi bliska, izvjesna, buducnost. Oblic! i primjeri takvc llpotrebe ovog vremena
dati su uz objasnjenje prezcnta trajnog.
8. Going t'o + intinitive Future
Buduca, izvjesna, unaprijed planirana radnja, ili cak i namjcra koju sma odlucili ostvariti,
cesto se iskazuje oblikom "Going to" + ini1nilive.
Tvorba ovog buduceg vremcna u potvrdnom, upitnom, odricnol11 i odricno-upitnom'
obliku jednostavna je, pa je nije potrebno posebno objasnjavati.
·I'm going!o rend after seven p.m.
• Are you going to pbone mc tomorrow morning?
• Isn't be going!n ask his fricnd about it?
• Aren't )Iou going 10 buy a new car?
• Is she going to write a new report? itd.
Napol1lena: U ameriawlJI gOV0l'!10111 jezikll se cesto cuje izraz 1 'm gonna, h e ~ ' gOl1na
ftd. ali se lIpotreba fog oblika ne preporucuje u njegoV(l110m govoru, pogotovo
ne II akademskim raspravama.
9. To be to + Infinitive i to be about to + InHnitive
Jezicke strukture: to be to + infinitiv i to be about to + infinitiv izrazavajuncposrednu
buducu radnju. One su ceste u govornomjeziku, pa ih zato treba spomenuti.
• 1 am about to Gull my t.eacher. (Upravo hocu da nazovcm mog ucitc1ja).
• 1 am just to visit him. (l am just about to visit him)
• Azra is JUS! abo\!t to leave
• We are abol!t to finish our job.
s He's about to go out for a walk.
• They are j\!st abQut to phone to their parents.
• ~ u about to go to bed? Yes, I am.
• We are juS! ahQIII to leave.
Upotreba
Upotreba oblika pas iva za izrazavanje buduce radnje obrazlozena je u pog\avIju koje
se odnosi na vremena pasiva. Oblici pasiva se upotrebljavaju za buduCll radnju II skladu
sa pravilima upotrebe pas iva uopste. Uvjet 1I kojima se upotrebljava aktiv za izrazavanje
buduce radnje slicni Sll uvjetima u kojima sc koristi pasiv za buduC:ll radnju, samo se
dodatno moraju imati u vidu opci okviri za upotrebu pasiva i, naravno moraju se
upotrijebiti oblici pas iva za buduCll radnju.
49
PASIV
OBILJEZJA I'ASIVA U ENGLESKOM JEZIKU
1. U pasivnoj rccenici subjckt trpi posljedicc vrscnjH glagolskc radnje, pa je otuda
i dobio nazi v trpno stanjc. Subjekt, daldc, nije vrsilac glagolske radnje (sto jc sluca] u
recenicama izrazenim aktivom) ncgo se radnja vrsi na subjektu. Ustvari objekt aktivne
recenice postajc subjekt pasivnog glagola u pasivnoj konstrukciji.
U recenicama
a) "Mal]! asked my friend Bob about (he whole situation"
b) "1vlyfh"end Bob )'vas asked about the whole sitUalion by Maly"
imamo dva razliCita strukturalna Jjesenja za slicne, ali ne identicne scmantickc
varijallte. Formalna razlika u ave dvije recenice ogleda sc u Cinjcnici da je u recenici
pod '''a'' Mary subjekt, a my friend Bob je objekt ,dokje u rccenici pod ~ · b " my friend
Bob postao subjekt pasivne recenice. Sustinska scmanticka razlikaje u cinjenici daje u
"b" recenici naglasak na radnji, na izvrsavanju radnje dokje u "a" recenici naglasak na
vrsiocu radnje, 11a subjektu.
2. U engleskom jeziku razlikujcmo dvije vrste pas iva: pasiv radnje i pasiv stanja.
Pasiv radnje ima sva obicna gJagolska vremena ("simple tenses") i samo dva trajna
vremena ("continuous - progressive tenses": (Present Progressive Tense i Past
Progressive Tense), dok se druga trajna vremena ugJavnom ne upotrebljavaju ni u
usmenome ni u pismenome komuniciranju.
Pasiv radnje vidljiv je u recenicama:
• This bridge was built last year.
• This bridge has already been buill.
• This bridge wil! be built in two years.
• This bridge had been built before we came to Mostar itd.
Pasiv stanja opisu/e stanje i fie izraiava aktivl105>'f niti praces radnje. To potvrctuju
sljedece rc(:en;ce:
• The window is broken.
• The door is locked.
• Jane is married to Henry.
• Peter is interested in modern painting.
• He is quite satisl1ed with his new job.
Pasiv stanja ncma "progressive" oblike, za razliku od pasiva radnje koji ima dva trajna
obllka: prezent i preterit.
3. Pasiv radnje mogu po pravilu imati samo prijelazni glagoli tj. glagoli koji obavezno
imaju iIi mogu imati objekt u akuzativu. Neprije\azni gJagoli kao "to go" "to run" (u
znacenju treatl), "to spring", "to lie" (Jczati), "to die", "to fall" "to bleed", "to come",
"to travel", "to alTive", "to bow", "to endure", "to bargain", "to appear", "to disappear"
hd. ne l110gu bit-i upotrijebljeni u pasivu.
4. Pasiv se u engleskom jeziku kodsti veoma testa. Ova narocito vazi za tekstove i
usmene rasprave sto se ad nose nu gotova sve tehni6kc grane, tchnoloske postupke, na
nauena istrazivanje i interpretiranje rezultata istrazivanja. U takvim tekstovima postize
se veea koncentriranast, veea gustoea, jer je u njima u prvom planu konstatacija bitnih
Cinjenica i rezultata istrazivanja, isticanje nalaza do kojih se doslo. Vrsenje radnje je u
pasivnim konstrukcijama vaznije ad vrsiaca. Vrsioci radnje, istrazivaci, interpretatori
rezultata istrazivanja Sll u drugom planu, gotovo nikad se i ne pominju, jer su nebitni u
datom kantekstu. Citalac u takvom zgusnutom tekstu brze dalazi do infonnacije koja ga
zanima, do rezultata istrazivanja pa tako gubi manje vremena. Procjeniuje se da se
najmanje jedna trecina recenica u tekstovima i raspravama 0 tehniCko-tehnojoskirn,
naucno-istraiiv<lckim temama izrazava pasivnom kODstrukcijom
Pasiv se naroeito u engieskorn jeziku upotrebljava u sljedeeim okolnostima:
a) aka je subjekt aktivne reecnice sasvim nepoznat iii nema u datim okolnostima nikakvu
veeu vainost.
• My umbrella was stolen yesterday.
• The b,.;clge over the Neretva wm built last ye([/:
• German is spoken in three European countries,
• The boss has been informed about the accident.
• This action will never
• The new highway will be completed sometime next month.
• Foreign languages are taliS/ht in eVely' school il1 Bosnia.
• The World Clip/ootball games are beil1f' tclel'i.<.;ed allover the world.
• Computers are used (have been used were used, had been used, will be lIsed) all
over the globe,
• It is said (assumed, known) that much damage had been caused.
• Mathematics is' aoolfed in many sciel1!(/1c bra/lches.
• Will these letters be answered soon?
• T"vo wires have' heen welded vel)' quick)v.
• The definilion has been used mallY times during the research.
• Forces are classified under two general headings.
• The shape of this body will be changed.
51
• It is estimated that one third orthe total energy hus been lost.
.. The chemical constituents of this material must be controlled.
• All these free samples should be controlled.
o Our house must be (shQuld be) painted this week.
U gornjim primjcrima ne znamo ko je vrsilac radnje iIi nam on nije poscbno vazan.
b) ako jc subjckt pasivne recenice vazniji od subjekta aktivnc recenice, tj. ako je radnja
rccenice bitnija od izvrsioca radnje.
• The poem you are reading was WIi11&u by Keats.
• Mmy W((), Dunished by her/atha
• He was driven to Sarajevo by his friend Bob.
• This ft:lIllOUS :iymphony vms composed by Beethoven.
• The dass ,vas being tallght by a famous teacher.
• He has been the police for five hours.
• Many car engines arc cooled by watel:
• The fact that the Earth revolves round the sun was discovered by Galileo.
Treba poscbno istaci cia u gornjim recenicama i drugima koje imaju iste karakteristike i
svojstva subjekt aktivne recenice kojem prethodi prepozicija "by" tini bitan diD informacije
kaa cjeline i u pravilu se mora upotrijebiti u pasivnoj recenici tj. ne smije se izostaviti.
c) ako je vrsilac radnje, ocigleuan u datoj situaciji ili poznat, pa ga slusaoci i Citaoei
podrazumijevaj II bez obzira sto nije pOlllcnuL
• The new president was elected last year.
.. Many mistakes were made during the last exam.
• This new road in our town has already been built.
.. The new member of our party was
• "Hamlet" was written a long time ago.
• Football is played very well in England.
• I will be told the latest news when I come home.
• The New Year will be celebrated everywhere .
.. English is taught almost everywhere.
• That can't be done easily in the existing situation.
• The sick girl in my neighbor's family was looked after very welL
.. He was la1!ghed at eveD in his family .
.. President Clinton was re-elected six years ago.
-llil.s. the business lIetter been sent in time?
• He was told to be to work on time.
U gornj im recenicama fokusira se radnja i njeno vrsenje, dokje vrsilac (iii vrsioci radnje)
u drugolU planu, te je stoga To je razlog da se konstrukcija "by" i subjekt
aktivne recenice izostavljaju u pasivnoj recenici.
5. U bosanskom jeziku pasiv se lIpotrebljava veoma rijetko kako u govornom
komuniciranju tako i II najraznovrsnijim pisanim tekstovima. Neposredna posljedica te
yaine cinjenice je dvojaka:
• mnoge recenice izrazene pasivom na engleskomjeziku moramo prevoditi ili nasim
aktiyom, iii upotrebom povratne zamjenice se, iIi koriStenjem bezlicnih glagola;
• rnnoge recenice izraiene aktivom na nasem jeziku se mora..iu preyoditi pasiynirn
konstrukcijama na engleski jezik. U protivnom ce se elesiti cIa se gubi znacajna
karakteristika engleskog jczika - njegoyo svojstyO da pasivom postize vecu
lIsmjerenost na bitne informacijc i bric vodcnje citaoca cIo sllstinskih konstatacija,
njegovu mogucnost cIa jace istakne vrscnjc glagolske radnje, a cIa vrsioca potisne
u drugi plan.
Vremena pas iva 11 engleskom jeziku
Pasiv u engleskom jeziku ima sva "simple" vremena kao i u aktivu i sarno elva
"progressive" tj. "continuous" vremena: Present Tense Progressive i Past Tense
Progressive.
Opee pravilo za tvorbu razlicitih vremena pas iva glasi: pasiv se pravi od odgovarajuceg
vremena pomocnoga glagola "to be" i participa perfekta glagola kojeg zelirno
upotrijcbiti.
Present simple:
Present Progressive:
Past Tense Simple:
Past Tense Progressive:
Present Perfect Tense Simple:
Past Perfect Tense Simple:
Future Tense Simple:
This letter is written.
This letter is being written.
This letter was written.
This letter was being written.
This letter has been written.
This letter had been written.
This letter wi!! be written.
Pasiv u Iwmbinaciji sa modalnim glagolima
~ t ) Prczent pasiva u kombinaciji sa modalnim glagolima pravi se tako da se modal nom
glagolu doda saelasnji jntin!tiv pasiva. A sadasnji infinitiv pasiva se prav! tako da se
glagolu "be" doda pllrticip perfekt:l glagola koji zelimo upotrijebiti. (Dakle'
modal + be + Particip perfekta)
• The window can'r be opened.
• All children need to be taught Mathematics.
• May I be excused this time'?
• Those books ought to be sent as soon as possible.
• Heat may be transmitttd in three ways.
53
.. Dynamics can be divided into two branches .
.. The shape of the body can be cbanged
• A distinction can be (must be) made between the external and intel11al forces .
.. These samples can be (must be ought to be) analyzed very carefully before we use
them.
• Mary must be told the news as soon as possible.
• How can this statement be interpreted?
e Energy can be converted from Ol1e form to another.
• The whole procedure should be defined very precisely.
• The letter must be written and mailed before noon,
D Steam can be (may be) converted into water.
• This caD be calculated by applying the appropriate formula.
• Substances may be changed il'om onc state into another.
.. The greatest attention must be paid to this difficult situation .
.. Her handwriting caunot be read.
• Energy ~ neither created nor destroved,
• Heat energy can be converted into mechanical work .
.. A lot of experiments must be done to prove that theOlY.
• Electrical energy cannot be transmitted without some losses.
b) Past Passive (pasiv prosli) u kombinaciji sa modalnim glagolima tvori se tako da se
1110dalno111 glagolu dod a infinitiv perfekta pasiva, Infinitiv perfekta pas iva gradi se
dodavanjem participa perfekta pcrfektu pomocnoga glagola "to be" (DakIe: modaIn!
glagol + inlinitiv perfecta pas iva ").
Ove glagolske strukture izrazavaju pretpostavku 0 prosloj radnji, kazuju da se vjerovatno
nesto desilo iii se nije desilo iako bi se trebalo (moralo, moglo) desiti.
• The letters should have been sent last week.
• This museum must have been built 500 years ago.
• The Old Bridge in Mostar mllst have been built a long time ago .
.. The new factory must have been opened last year.
.. The shape of the body CQuid have been changed by heat.
.. AU children should have been taught Mathematics .
.. He might have been excused ifhe had wanted to,
.. MillY should have been told the news when she arrived,
.. That must have been done by now.
• His house should have been painted by the end of this summer,
Pasiv sa glagolom "get"
U kombinaciji sa glagolom "get" cesto koristi se particip perfekta. U takvim
konstrukcijama upotrebljava se glagol " to get" umjesto glagola "to be". Particip perfekta
upotrebljava se iza glagola "get" pa time cijela konstrukcija clobija obiljezja pasiva.
Konstrukcija pas iva sa "get" je closta cesta u engleskom govornomjeziku ali se smatra
nepoclesnorn u akaclemskim raspravama i u pisanom komuniciranju.
• He stopped running because he got tired,
• They got married three years ago,
• Two drunk drivers got arrested.
• Three men ~ i n the mountain.
• The policeman !!QLkill;&by a drug dealer.
Upotreba pas iva sa subjektom '"it"
Postoji veliki broj ustaljenih frazeoloskih konstrukcija u kQjima je upotrtjebljen "it"
kao subjekt, a zatim slijedi particip perfekta. Frazeoloska konstrukcija "it" kojoj se
dodaje particip perfekta ima sva fonnalna i sustinska obiljezja pasiva. Ta konstrukcija
se dosta cesto upotrebljava u engleskom jeziku. Njenu upotrebljivost, primjenjivost i
rasirenost
Potvrdit ce sljedeci primjeri.
• It is said
• It is believed
• It is assumed
• It is thought
• It is explained
• It is estimated
• It is concluded
• It should be noted
• It could be shown
• It must be understood
• It is known
• It can be concluded
• It can be assumed
he is a good human being.
we can profit from this investment.
he is a very successful businessman,
that it is impossible to do that in time.
the cost of living will rise.
many animals can communicate.
the president will address the audience.
Konstmkcije i frazeoloski izrazi kao sto su: he was known, he was said, he was believed,
he was undcrstoood, he was found itd. 1ma neke sUcnosti sa "it" konstrukcijom ali
ima i bitnih strukturalnih raz!ika. Umjesto subjekta "it" upotreb\javaju se zamjenice iIi
imenice. Nakon fraza: he was known, he was believed itd. obaveznaje struktura "to" +
"be" + particip prezenta iii particip perfekta.
• The sun was to be seen through the clouds.
e The current is known to flow from the positive to the negative pole,
55
Vpotrcba trajnih vremena pasiva
Samo se dva trajna ("progressive" "continuous") vremena engleskog jezika
upotrebljavaju u pasivu: Present Passive Progressive i Past Passive Progressive.
Present Passive Progressive oznacava radnju koja se dogada, kojaje u toku u trenutku
govorenja, u trenutku njenog pomil\janja ili komentiranja.
• Some new buildings are being built in our town.
• This class is being taught by a very C11110US teacher.
• A big power plant is being designed.
• My fumiture is being put into the living room.
• The wavelength is being decreased.
• The position of the osciHating electron is being changed
• A simple motion is being performed in this process.
• The oil of the car is being changed
• He had an automobile accident and his car is still beiniJ repaired.
• His clothes ~ s t i l l being cleaned at the cleaner's.
Past Passive Progressive kazuje radnju koja je duze trajala u odredenom poznatom
prosiom vremenu ili radnju kojaje vee bila u toku kad se dogodila neka druga radl\ja.
• The dinner ~ u s t being prepared for him when he came home.
• All the bridges were being repaired for a long time.
• This moving part of the machine was being subjected to continuous friction.
• Many materials were being used as lubricants during the whole process.
• The machine was being transpOlied with a lot of diiTiculty.
• This robber was being chased by the police for a long time,
• The car engine was being tuned when I came to see it.
• All four tires were being changed when I called the mechanic.
• Many interesling topics were being discussed during the meeting.
• Her poems were being translated when I called the publisher.
• These students were being taught chemistry when I entered the room.
Pretvaranje aktivnih recenica u pasivne
Cesto se u nasim nastavnim materijalima sugeriraju vjezbe pretvaranja aktivnih recenica
u pasivne. To ima prednosti utoliko sto ucenici nauee tvorbu pas iva u razliCitim
vremenima. Sa takvim vjezbama ipak ne treba pretierivati jer ucenici i studenti taka ne
uocavaju stilisticke znaeajke pas iva, njegove semanticke karakteristike i vrijednostL
Mora se imati na umy da engleski pasiv nije tek drugi oblik iskazivanja aktivnih recenica,
zato sto pasiv Ima neke bitne uvjete pod kojima se on maze i treba upotrebljavati 0
cemu je vee bilo rijeci.
Preoblicavanje aktivne recenice u pasivnu vrs! se na sljcdeci nacin:
a) objekt u aktivnoj postaje subjekt u pasivnoj recenici, a subjekt aktivne postaje objekt
pasivne recenice. Pri tome cesta se (ne uvijek) u pasivnoj recenici koristi prepozicija
by;
b) glagolsko vrijeme prebaci se iz aktiva u odgovarajuce vrijeme pasiva.
Primjeri:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Aktiv:
Pasiv:
Peter visited my family two days ago.
My family was visited by Peter two days ago.
We have built a new house in a short time.
A new house has been built in a short time.
She lost her gloves on the train.
Her gloves were lost on the train.
People will forget this scandal vel)' soon.
This scandal will be forgotten very soon.
They did nothing until their mother came.
Nothing was done until their mother came.
The judge had punished John.
John had been punished by the judge.
My friend will visit me tomorrow night.
I will be visited tomorrow night by my friend.
Peter can write all the letters in three days.
All the letters can be written by Peter in three days.
They limited the number of students.
The number of students was limited.
She is going 10 write this lettter on Monday.
This letter is going to be written on Monday.
Napomena: A1oramo imati na 1I/1l1l da lwd g/agola koji elva objekta (direktni i
indirektni) postoje dl'lje fIIOguC:"05;fi :;a pf'ebaciv[[f!ie aktivl1ih u
pasivne. Kako di/'ektuj tolw i !Ildir(,ktllj objekt //IoZe bjtj lfDotr{jebUan u
fUllkciij wb)ekta p(!SiJ'l7e reCenice
57
The Grandfather told the children an interesting story.
a) An interesting story was told to the children by the grandbthcr;
b) The children were told an interesting story by the grandfather.
They give Peter the instructions on how to find the museum.
a) Peter is given the instructions on how to find the museum.
b) The instructions on how to find the museum are given to Peter.
The mayor has given a reward to a policeman.
a) A policeman has been given a reward by the mayor.
b) A reward has been given to a policeman by the mayor.
They will give us a famous painting.
a) A famous painting will be given to us.
b) We will be given a famous painting.
Maty promised me an interesting book.
a) I was promised an interesting book by Mmy.
b) An interesting book was promised to me by Mary.
This tourist guide shows us a famous building.
a) We are shown a famous building by this tourist guide.
b) A famous building is shown to us by this tourist guide.
The waitress handed John a menu at the restaurant.
a) John was handed a menu by the waitress at the restaurant.
b) A menu was handed to John by the waitress at the restaurant.
1. Pri preoblicavanju reccnica iz aktiva u pasiv ne smiju se ispustiti (izostaviti) prepozicije
koje su sastavni dio gJagola, kao i advcrbijalnc par1ikuic.
Aktiv Pasiv
They sent for the doctor. The doctor was sent for.
We have talked over the problem. The problem has been talked over.
.-
He will look after the children well. The children will be well looked after
Mary will not laugh at me. I will not be laughed at by Mary.
The director of the firm looked into this This matter was looked into by the
matter. director of the firm.
The rotating impeller draws in a lot of A lot of air is drawn in by the rotating
air. im-'pc!ier.
They all have looked down on me.
I have been looked down on by all of
them.
We have put off our trip. _ Our trip has been put off.
They turned down our offer immediately. Our offer was turned down immediately.
A great crowd of people listened to Peter.
Peter was listened to by a great crowd of
people.
Somebody turned off the air-conditioner. The air-conditioner was turned off.
David has filled out the income tax form.
The income tax form has been filled out
bv David.
The landlord will tlJrn on the heal.
The heat will be turned on by the
landlord.
Ann had brought back ~ h e library books.
The library books had been brought back
bv Ann.
I The student handed in his homework
The homework was handed in after it had
I after she had done it over. been done over.
I They will pick up their children soon.
Their children will be picked up soon.
Mary will figure out her hospital bilL
The hospital bill will be figured out by
Mary.
Martha had to do over the algebra The algebra homework had to be done
homework. over bv Martha.
They will hang up their New Year's party Their New Year's party decorations will
decorations.
be hlJng up.
59
1. NapiSite na bosanskome jcziku prijevode svih primjera koji su navedeni pri
objasnjavanju pasiva u engleskom jcziku.
2. Napisitc sljcdece recenice u aktivu:
1. The new highway will be completed sometime next month.
2. He will be taught to become a pilot.
3. The football games are being televised all over the world.
4. Hamlet was written by the English poet Shakespeare.
5. The Washington Monument is visited by hundreds of people every week.
6. Her courage will be remembered for a long time.
7. This poor girl is being looked after very welL
8. Our building has been designed by a architect.
9. The new hotel will be designed by my uncie.
10. He will come back when everything has been prepared.
11. The report you asked for has finally been written.
12. I forgol that the instructions had been given to me by my friend.
13. Their guests were taken to the Adriatic Sea.
14. The doctor has already been sent for.
15. A garage is being built here.
16. The test results will be given to you in two or three days.
17. Some new houses are being built in our neighborhood.
18. John was paid down a very large sum of money.
19. He will be required to vote this year.
20. Who was the building designed by?
21, Mary was run over by a car.
22. Mark had been yelled at by his boss, because he was an hour late.
23. Mr. Taylor was given a more important job.
24. Martha will be hired by a velY big French company
3. Napisitc ovc rCCcl1icc u pasivu:
1. They were building many new streets in our town Mostar.
2. We have invited our English friends to come to Mostar.
3. We will tell our mother the latest news.
4. The famous college limited the number of new students.
5. She has furnished and decorated her new apartment.
6. Somebody told me this extremely interesting story.
7. She lost her umbrella on the train.
S. People always admire successful actors and actresses.
9, Our friends gave us a ride to Sarajevo.
10. Nobody has asked you such a difficult question,
11. Mary finished her work at six p.m. yesterday.
60
12. Two police officers pushed the robber out of the room.
13. Most probably they will print this f ~ l l n o u s novel in Sarajevo.
14. Such newspaper reports confuse many readers.
15. The English police arrested the driver for speeding.
J 6. Someone must fix that leaking sink.
17. The boss yelled at the employee for being an hour late.
18. The film director will direct a new expensive film.
19. He had painted this painting beforc he came to Bosnia.
20. This famous inventor has invented many useful machines.
2 J • Mary must write down John's telephonc number.
22. Maria has done all the dishes in a VCIY short time.
23. The police have\been chasing the robber al! over the town.
24, Somebody has turned oirthe lights,
25, The parents woke up both children,
26. They must look into that matter.
27. Today the teacher wil! give us a new test.
28. This doctor ordered the patient to rest for two weeks at least.
29. The computer performs these mathematical operations in no time.
4. Prevedite pasivom na englcski jezik
1. Kolumbo je otkrio, do tada nepoznati, kontinent - Ameriku.
2. Cuveni talijanski slilear naslikao je tu prekrasnu sliku.
3. Ranjenje za vrijeme agresije na Bosnu i Hercegovinu.
4. Selma ce nazvati svoga dragog prijatelja Osmana u 10 sati.
5. Pokaza!i su mi put do novog stadiona u Zenici.
6. JeSll Ii sva pisma vee otkucana i pos!ana nasim poslovnim prijateljirna?
7. Receno joj je da moze posjetiti svog brata u bolnici.
8. Svi stanov! su proclati mnogo prije nego 5to su bili i sagradeni.
9. Svi su voljeJi to simpaticnu, ali veoma bolesnu djevojcicu.
10. Emir je veoma uspjesan arhitekt, pa je nagradivan vise puta za svoj rae!.
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KONDICIONAL
Kondicionalima se iskazuju pogodbcne recenice, tj. uvjeti pod kojima ce se radnja glavne
recenice 1zvrsiti iii se nece izvrsiti. Razlikujcmo tri vrste kondicionala:
za izrazavanje pogodbe u sadasqjosti;
• za iskazivanjc ostvarive, rcaine i moguce pogodbe lIpotrebom preterita;
• za kazivanjc Ilcostvarive, irealnc pogodbe upotrebom pluskvamperfekta.
Pri izrazavanju pogodbenih rccenica sva tri pomcnuta tira koristi 5e jedan od dva
postojeca kondicionala: kondicional I (The Present Conditional) i kondicional II (The
Past Conditional).
1. The Present Conditional
Ponovo treba naglasiti da Future in the Past i The Present Conditional imaju identicne
oblike, ali se njihove semanticke karaktcristil{c medusobno bitno razlikuju. Stoga
futur prosli moramo prevoditi na nas jezik nasim futurom, a kondicional I nasim
pogodbenim reccnicama. Ocito, tc razlike u znacenju dviju idcnticnih glagolskih [ormi
su zaista velike i ta razlicitost u znacenju sc ne smijc zanemariti.
Tvorba
Kondicional I gradi se u potvrdl1om obliku upotrebom glagola should iii would i
infinitiva bez "to".
• I (we) should play, cut, smile, carry, write, study, read, s1mi itd.
• You, (he, she, they) would play, cut, smile, carry, write, study. start itd.
Odricni oblik sc pray! dodavanjcm negacije not potvrdnome obliku.
• I (we) should not play, cut, smile, cany, write, study, stmi itd
• You (they, he, she) would not play, cut, smile, write, study, start itd.
Upitni oblik pravimo inverzijom, tj. zamjenom mjesta glagola should (would) i subjekta.
• Should I (we) play, cut, smile, cany, write, study, read, start.
• Would you (they, he, she) play, cut, smile, carry, write, study, read, start.
Odricno-upitni oblik tvorimo dodavanjem negacije not upitnom obliku. Ta negacija
dodaje se glagolima should i would, ali se piSe i kazuje iza subjekta ako je upotrijebljen
puni oblik. Ako se koristi sazeti oblik, ta negacija dodajc se sarno glagolima should iii
}vould.
6)
• Should I (we) not play, cut, smile carry, write, study, read, start?
• Would you (they, she, he) not play, cut, smile, carry, write, study, read?
• Shouldn't I (we) wouldn't you (they, he she) play, cut, smile, eany itd.
Napomena: Veoma cesto piSli se i govore sazeti oblici II potvrdnim, odricnim i odricno
~ l l p i t n i l 1 1 I'ecenicama.
• I'd, we'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, they'd play, cut, smile, carry, 'write, read. ftd.
• /'d not, (iii Ishouldn 't) we'd not, (we ).jlou/dn i) you'd not (vou wouldn't) she'd not
(she wouldn't), he 'el nol (lte rvouldn 't), they 'e! not (they lNouldn i) play, cut, smile,
Can)', write, read, start.
Vpotrcba
Kondicionalom prvim izrazava se uvjet od koga ovisi izvrsenje, odnosno neizvrsenje
glagolske radnje. Taj uvjet maze se odnositi na sadasnju iii na buducu pogodbu. Ako se
uvjet odnosi na pros lost, ne moze se upotrijebiti kondicional prvi, vee kondicional drugi.
SadasnJost:
• If they carne here now, they wOll1 d help us for sure.
Da dodu ovamo, ani bi nam pomogli.
• What would you think if I did such a thing?
Sta bi ti mislio da uradim nesto tako?
• Ifwe bought tickets, we would go to the movie theatre.
Da kupimo ulaznice, isli bismo u kino.
• lfmy friends weren't too busy, they would play with us.
Da nisu zauzeti igrali bi se sa nama .
.. She wouldn't have any problems, if she studied harder.
Ne bi imala nikakvih problema, da vise uti.
• We would go to the U.S.A .. if we hill! any 0ppOltunity.
ISH bismo u SAD da imamo neku mogucnost.
• She would be vely foolish if she did something like that.
BHa bi veoma blesava da uradi neato tako.
• If my parents ~ rich, they would buy me a new car.
Da su moji roditelji bogati, kupili bi mi nova kola.
• If the mechanic could fix our car by tomorrow, we would visit our uncle.
Ako mehanicar 1110gne popraviti nasa kola do sLltra, Illi bismo posjetili naseg amidztl
- daidzu.
· rf she came in by.f1ve 0 'clock we would go out to ({ restaurant }vith he/:
Da dode do pet sati iZ<lsli bismo sa njolll u restoran.
·Ifwe were able to finish our job by 4 p.m. we would play basketbalL
Ako mognemo zavrsiti svoj posao do 4 popodne, igrali bismo kosarku
63
o They wouldn't try it again, if they knew all the circumstances.
Ne bi to ponovo pokuasli da znaju sve okolnosti.
Napomcna 1: Kad prevodimo ove pogodbene recellice sa cnglcskog na bos(lf7.l;ki jezik
lIIoramo:biti veOlJ/O oprezl7i i ne prevoditi cngleski Past Tense nasim prosliim
vrcmeJlom, .IeI' bi (0 bila pogreSJlo. Recel1ice ovog tipa (za i za
buducnos!) prevode se !/asimlll pogodbenim ,,([Cinom i prezcntofll, odnasno
[ilturom.
NapOli/enG 2: Sve se vise 1/ govornollljeziku II kondiciona/u upo(rcbljava glagol would
za sva lieG, dok ,se glagol should potis/ay'c iz ova/..l!e upotrebe. Clago/ should
i daUe se ces{o upolrebljav(I ali sa neSlo iZllIfjel?jenilll zna(:enjem.
2. The Past Conditional
Kondicional drugi gradimo u potvrdnom obliku pomocll glagola i
infinitiva perfekta glagola koji zeljmo upotriiebiti (Infinitiv perfekta se tvori dodavanjem
participa perfekta pomocnom glagolu " have" bez "to".) Should se upotrebljava za
prvo lice jednine i l11nozinc a would za sva ostala liea jednine i mnozine.
• I (we) should have played, cut, smiled. carried, written studied, read, itd.
• You (they, she, he) would have played, cut, smiled, carried, written, studied.
Upitni oblik pravi se inverzijom potvrdnog oblika, tj. zamjenom mjesta subjekta i
glagola should, would.
e Should I (we) have played, cut, smiled, carried, written studied, read, ...
• Would you (they, he, she) have played, cut, smiled, carried, written, read?
Odricni oblik pravi se upotrebom negacije not koja se dodaje potvrdnom obliku iza
pomoC:lloga glagola "to have".
• I (we) should have not played, cut, smiled, carried, written, studied, read)
• You (they, she, he) would have not played, cut, smiled, carried, written
Odricl1o-upitni oblik gradi sc POl11oc:u upitnog oblika kondicionala drugog kome se
dodaje negacija not iza subjekta a ispred pomocnog glagola "have" aim se upotrebljava
puni oblik. Ako se medutim koristi sazetj glagolski oblik negacija not se dodaje
pomocnome glagolu should iii would.
o Should I (we) not have played (cut, smiled, carried, written, studied, read)?
• Shouldn't I have played, cut, smiled, carried, written, studied, read? Would you
(they, he, she) not have played, cut, smiled, carried, written,
• Wouldn't you (they, he, she) have played, cut, smiled, canied, written,
NrlpOlllena: Pot\nln;, odriclli i odricno-upifni ahlici se IIpafl'eblal'{{jll II
sazetqj/i)f"fni: 1 'd (we 'dj it; I (we) should/) 't have played, clll, smiled,
carried, written, stlfded, read, itd.
" Yall 'd (they'd, he'd, she'd) not have pjayed, cut, smi/cd, carried, writte
& Yr)1I (t//(:v, she, he) l,vollldl1 i have played, Clft, smiled, carried. written.
Upotrcba
Kondicional drugi koristi sc za iskazivanjc proslc pogodbc (proslog vjctn) l! glavnoj
rcccnici. U if rcccnici sc tac!a upotrcbljava pluskvamperfckl a u glavnoj reccnici jc
ircalni. neostvareni uvjet izraZcn kondicionalom drugim. Treba svakako ponovo istaci
da je po obliku kondicjomd drugi identican futuru u proslosti. To namccc potrebu za
vclikim oprezol11 pri prcvoc1cnju ova dva formatno idcnticna, a scmanticld razlicita
gJagoJska oblika. Jet", l1ikako ne mOZe biti svcjeclno cia Ii sc taj oblik prcvocli pogoclbenom
rccenicom iIi se on prevodi fllturom. Upotreba i kontekst odreolljc izborjcdnog iii drugog
prevoda.
• Ifmy father had been more careful, the accident \-vould not have happened.
Smisao: Nesreea sc dogodila i ta Cinjenica se ne maze izmijeniti. Dakle, da je moj
otac bio pazljiviji, ali nije i to se ne maze izmijeniti. U tomcjc irealnast pogodbe.
• We would have traveled a lot if we had had enough money.
Smisao: Nismo imali novac i nismo putovali - ircalna pogodba
• If they had caught the 8 o'clock train, they would have been here already.
Smisao: niSI! .';figli na voz II osam sari i nisu do/iii. To ne maze se
prolll{jeniti, iI/tome se soslqji irea/nast, lIeostl'orenosf i neastvarivost pagodhe.
• lfwc had knQ\vn how dangerous that action \-vas, we wouldn't have done it at ,dL
Smisao: Nismo znah daje ta akcfja opasna, poduze/i slIIoje i dospje/i II opasllost.
lreainost pogodbeje oCita.
• If they had told me that in time, r wouldn"t have done such a stupid thing.
Smisao: Nismo znali daje fa akc{ja apasno, podllzeli smoje i dospjeli 11 opasl1ost.
lrealnost pogodhe.ie
• If you had come in timc, you would have seen him.
• I wouldn't have had any trouble if I had known all these facts.
• If be had asked his parents, he would have been quite sure about it.
• She would have arrived earlier if she had taken n taxi.
-lfit hadn't stopped raining, we would have not made in time.
- He would have lost his books jf he hadn't put them in this bag.
65
KONJUNKTIV
Glagoli u engleskomjeziku mogu imati tri nacina (moods);
• Indikativ
• Konjunktiv
·Imperativ
Indikativom se iskazuju radnje iii zbivanja koji su reaini, koji se stvarno dogadaju,
koji su se dogodili iIi ce sc dogoditi. On, dakle, iskazuje stvarne cinjenice, konstatacije,
stvama dogadanja ili nedogadanja.
• They go ta school.
• Azra doesn't like to get up early.
• My mother has lived in Mostar for 10 years.
• They visited us an Sunday,
• Has he always been such workaholic?
• She had forgotten to ask about it.
• He will come in time.
• Are you going to travel this week?
Konjunktivom se ne iskazuje cinjenicno stanje i realnost vec, naprotiv, pretpostavke,
:zelje, ocekivanja, zahtjev, nadu, eventualnu mogucllost, a te pretpostavke zelje i
ocekivanja itd.mogu biti ostvarivi ( moguci ) ali i neostvarivi (irealni). Ostvarenje je u
svakom slucaju neizvjesno, nesigurno.
Formalne razlike konjunktiva 1I odnosu l1a indikativ neznatne su.
1.Glagol "to be" u svim licima konjunktiva prezenta ima isti oblik: infinitiv bez " t o ~
be you be he be she be it be we be they be,
2,U prvom i treccm lieu Past Tens-a u konjunktivu se koristi oblik were umjesto was.
(Jf! 'were, ifhe were, ifshe were). Ostali oblici Past Tens-a ostaju isti kao u indikativu).
3. U trecem lieu jednine u Present Simpl-u ucma nastavka s kojije u indikativu obavezan
(osim izuzetno kod nekih glagola): he go, she go, it go,
Upotreba
Konjunktiv sc rijctko upotrebljava u savremenom u engleskomjeziku, ali se ipak koristi
bar u ovim trima razliCitim okolnostima:
66
1. Konjunktiv upotrijebljen u glavnoj recenici iskazuje zelju.
• I will I = lucky enough to get the scholarship!
• I wish I ~ in your shoes!
• Long llY.c. our country!
~ Long llY.c. our freedom!
• Long l ~ the young couple!
2. U pogodbcnim recenicama upotreba konjunktiva izrazava neispunjeni uvjet,
neispunjenu pogodbu.
• I f ~ here, he would fix our bicycle.
• l f ~ in your shoes, I wouJdn"t do it.
• Ifshe JYQfl:..IT older, she could attend the session.
• He behaves as if he ~ a millionaire.
3. Konjunktiv takoder se upotrebljava u izvjesnom broju idiomatskih izraza:
• ~ what may, I shall do my duty.
• Far ~ from me to even think of it.
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IMPERATIV
Zapovjednim se naCinom izrazava naredba, zahtjev, zabrana, opomcna, paziv i molba.
Za drugo lice jednine i mnozine zapovjcdni nacin identican je infinitivu glagola bez
"to".

• Ask him about it.
• Qp.rn the window.
• Hurry up
• Sit down.
• this book, not that one.
• Th.ll me the truth.
• Take him out.
• Switch the light QiI.
Kad se nc radi 0 izricitim narcdbama, ondaje U ovakvim strukturama gotovo obavczna
upotrcba rijeci, please. Njenom upotrebom "umeksava" se zahtjev (trazenje), ublazava
se izriCit05t, sto je vazoa kulturoloska oznaka cnglcskog jezika.
U odricilom obliku imperativa u drugoml ieu jednine i mooiinc isprcd gJagola stavlja
se odricni oblik pomocnog glagola "to do": do not (don't).
• Do not (don't) ask him about it.
• DQ not (don't) sit down here.
• Do not ( don 'j) take this book.
• Don'1 (do noO open the window.
• Don't (do not) come late to school.
.. Don't (do not) take him out.
• Don't (dol1Q1} eat too much icc cream .
.. Do not (don't) listen to her.
Imperativ za I i IIlUce jednine i mnozine gradi se pomocu glagola let.

• 1&1 him (heri..fini.sh the sentence.
• 1&1 us
• 1&1 us this book.
• 1&1 him (her) Qjlffi the windows.
• 1&1 her (himl.ill down here.
• 1&1 me ili next to you .
.. Let's go there right pow.
Odricni impcrativ za I i III lice jednine i mnozine gradi se dodavanjem odricnoga
oblika galagola "to do" (do not - don't) ispred glagola let.
• I2illDJilluJ-'l1l1et him ililll me here.
• Do not (don't) let him (herm down.
• Don't let him make such a mistake.
• Do not let us be ~ for lunch.
• Do not let them g.Q.Qill now.
• Do not let them QQ it again.
Za crnfatiCuli upotrchu imperativa postoje tri mogucnosti:
1. Glagol to" do" bez"to" stavi se ispred upolrijebtjenoga glagola;
• Do tell me all you know about it.
• Do hI? (jllier now.
• Do go to see your father now.
• ~ a little more polite,
• Do behave yourself.
• Do write this letter in the evening.
2. Druga mogucnost za emfatiCnu upotrebu zapovjednog nacina je upotreba liene
zarnjenice you za drugo lice jednine, ispred imperativa.
• You sit here. and YOll go there.
• You behave yourself.
• You don't interfere.
• You hcl.u him. He's your friend.
• You shut all windows.
• It's cold. You go out and play. with her.
3. Trecaje mogucnost za postizanje veoma izrazene emfaticnosti u imperativu upotreba
adverba za pravac (in, out, away, back, over, off, round, under) na samom pocetku
reCcnice:
• Up you camel
• OtfYOll gol
• Out you go!
• In YOU come I
• Away with it!
• Back you come!
.. Round you gol
• Here you come!
• There you sit
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Subjekt se u imperativu izostavlja za drugo licejednine ako imperativ nije upotrijebljen
emfaticno. Ali ako se zahtjev odnosi na vise osoba onda se, za drugo lice mnozine,
stavlja zamjenica you ispred imperativa.
• Sil down. (jedno lice).
• Ylli! Ann and Maty sit down.
• Slay in your room. (jedno lice).
• Ylli! two stay in your rooms.
• \Vrite these sentences down.
e You all write these sentences down,
• Don't touch anything here.
• Yml John and Fred don't touch anything.
Neodredene zarnjenice everybody. everyone, somebody. kada se upotrijebe u indirektnim
zahtjevima (naredbama) - iskazuju se na pocetku iii oa kraju recenice.
• Everybody stand up
• Stand up everybody.
• Somebody call the ambulance.
• .c.illl the ambulance somebody
• Eyeryone write this proverb.
• Write this proverb evelyone
Uz imperativ moze se upotrijebiti please iii will you. U tom slucaju ne iskazuje se
naredba. zahtjev, nego rnolba, sugestija, nesto nagJaseniji prijedlog ,a won't you pretvara
zahtjev u pozlv i prijedlog.
• ~ lhis leIter, ~ .
• ~ me these books, will you
• ~ mathematics, !lkl=
• sum smoking, !lkl=
• Cilll me back, ~ .
Woo't you write this letter?
Won't you give me these books?
Won't you study mathematics?
Won't you stop smoking?
Won't you call me back?
KHd uz glagol stoji prcpozicija iii ncka druga partikuhl , onda se one u il11pcrativu
najcesce upotrebljavaju na kraju recenice, ali se one IllOgU upotrijebiti i neposredno
nakon imperativa
• :I:iJJs& your books llllI.
• Iw:n the TV Qlh
• Write my phone number llilli:u.
• P.ll.t the light Qlh
• Drink up the mille
Take out your books.
II.iJ:n...Qn the TV
Write down my phone number.
lJ.lLQn the light.
l2rink the mi Ik lIj2.
Kad se poslije imperativa upotrijebi zamjcnica kao objekt, onda pattikule i prepozicije
moraju biti na kraju recenice.
• Bring them in.
• Look it up.
70
o Drink it up.
• Take it out. (the garbage)
o Put them on the desk.
• Put!hrnl down. (the boxes)
• Let them out.
• Let him in.
• Switch it off.
Zapovijed se moze izraziti ovim i slienim frazama:
• Away with it!
• Down with it!
• Down!
• Out with it!
• Out!
• Off with you!
Izrazito jaka Ijutnja,negodovanje iii uvrijedenost izrazava se ovim izrazima:
• Shut up! (Dosta grub zahtjev koji se ne upotrebljava u otmenom dmstvu);
• Hold your tongue!
• Stop it!
• Get off my back!
• Get off1
• Get out!
• Get lost!
UCtivi zahtjevi
Uetivi zahtjevi, sugestije, prijedlozi, iskazivanje vlastitog oeekivanja i zelje u engleskom
jeziku veoma su vazni zato 5tO su eesti u upotrebi. To nisu izrieiti zahtjevi i naredbe, vec
sugestije, podsticaji da se nesto ueini ill ne ueini, zapravo blagi zahtjevi i gotovo motbe.
Najces6i nacini ispoljavanja tih blagih zahtjeva su: Would you, will you, could you,
caD you + infinitive bez ~ ' t o . "
Potrebno je da se ovi oblic; usvoje vee u prvim fazama ucenja i da se pravl imperativj
upotrebljavaju samo izuzetno i rijetko. Izrazima would you? i could you? iskazuje se
btagi zahtjev u formalnoj atmosferi gdje ima {judi koje ne poznajete a njima se obracate,
dok se izrazi will you? can you? upotreb\javaju l! neformalnoj atmosferi, dakle u situaciji
kad se obraca poznanicima, iii bliskim osobama.
Izmedu fraza could you? i would you? nema nikakvih bitnih razlika, a takode nema
razlika izmedu izraza can you i will you?
71
e Would you help me please? ( umjesto: Help me please.)
• \Vil1 you (can you) QQ it for me'?
• Cmllil you stay here f'or an hour or two'?
• Could you you) QJ2Cll the windo\v'?
• Cilll you (will you) take this dog out?
e .cnu you (yJll you) to see us on Sund,1y'l
• Cill.l you (.lYill you) rul1 a taxi?
• Cilll you ( lYill you) clem} up this mess?
Uctivi zahtjcvi u)Julrchum frazc "'would yuu mind"
Fraza would you mind ko1'isti se testo u cng!eskom jcziku da uclivo izrazi prijedlog,
blagi zahtjev, sugcstiju, Nakon "would you mimI" maze sc upotrijebiti jedna ad dvije
mogucnosti:
a) Would you mind if I smoked? (Would you mind if I smoke'!)
b) \Vould you mind my opening the window?
Kad se ouaberc nastavak if, onda se iza toga upotrijebi Past Tense, a semanticka poruka
je trazcnjc dopustcnja da se Besto udni. Ova struktura zapravo znaci: smcta Ii yam ako
zatvorim prozor, sto implicira prijedlog, sugestiju. Upotreba Past Tense-a ne znaci da se
radnja odnosi na pros!ost. Radnja se, zapravo, odnosi na sadasnjost iii buducnost.
U govornom engleskomjeziku umjesto Past Tens-a se cesto upotrebljava 1 Present Simple
, dakIe: Wou/dyoll mil1d ({he callie I,Filh us?ili he comes with us?
Vv'ould you mind my smoking ima slicnQ znacenje kao a) struktura ("if struktura").
Medutim b) struktura (gerund) vise se koristi kad se sugestija upucuje nekome drugom
da nesto ucini, lako sc u govornom jcziku cesto upotrebljava gerund i kad sc traii
dopustcnje. Mogucc je, prclll<J tome, rVouid YOIl mind Illy smoking? (Smclll Ii 1/(l/1I (//w
pUSilll?) lii J-VouLd you I/Iilld opening the window sto bi se preve/o sa: Bisie Ii otvorili
prozor?
Sugcriran,ie lIeke radnje u cngleskom jeziku pocesto se vrsi izrazima: Why don't
we'! lli shall we'!
e Why don't we £n.li our parents now?
• \Vhy don't we
• \Vb\' don't we meet at four o'clock?
• \Vhv don't we something?
Shall we call our parents now?
Sl1.all
Shall we at four o'clock?
Shall we something?
INFINITIV
Infinitivi su osnovni, bazicni, neodrccteni gJagotski obIie!. U englcskom jeziku
infinitivim<1 prethodi partikula "to" Kod relativno maJog broja glagola ta partikula "to"
ne upotrcbljava se. Za razliku ad bosanskog jezika u kome postoji samo jed an infinitiv
(ncodrcc1cni glagolski oblik nn -ti, -ci) u engleskom jeziku postoji scst razlicitih
illfinitiva kod prelaznih i cetiri kod neprclaznih glagola.
1. (s.imu.1.c.) : to write, to smile, to study, to Cllt, 10 l'inish itd.
2. infinitiv prezent1!..ln..r!!grcssivt·); to be writing, to be smiling, to be cutting, to be
canying, to be reading itd. Ovaj infillitiv nc postoji u pasivu. Primjeri pokazuju
da se infinitiv prezenta trajnog gradi dodavanjern pm1jcipa prezenta pomocnom
glagolu "to be".
3. influW\' pt'rfel<ta (simple): to have written, to have cut, to have studied itd.
Iofio!tiv perfekta obicnog tvori se ad infioitivn pO!Do¢nog glu\ho)a "to haye" i
palticip<l perfekta glagola koji ielimo upotrijcbiti.
4. infinitiY...perfclda (progressiye); to have been vvriting, to have been smiling, to
have been cutting, to have been studying. Ovaj infinHiv ne postoji u pasivu.
Infinitiv perfekta trajnog se prnvi ad infinitivn perfcklD pomocoQ[; glngola "to be"
i participa prezcnHl !!potrijchJjeoog giawoia. On se rijetko upotrcbljava, cak i na
akademskom oivoll.
5. inilnHiy prt"lt'ota ):Ulsiva (simple); to be written; to be cut, to be asked, to be
read, to be visited, to be carried itd. Ovaj infinitiv se tvori D..dinfinjtivll pnmoCnWl
glagoln "10 be" i parljcjpn perrekta upotriiebHenog glagQla
6. intinit,iv perfckta nasivu (sirnnlffi to have been written; to have been cut, to
have been asked, to have been visited, to have been caJTied itd. Primjeri pokazuje
da se IDfinitiv perfekta pasivil obicno[l1vO[i oel infiniliva perfekta pomocnog
glugoJa "1'0 he"! particjpn perfektn Ilpotriiebljenol! glagQJn
Neprelazni g\agoli nemaju infinitive pasiva. Otudaje njiilov broj manji (cetir!) 1I odnosu
na infinitive prelaznih gJagola kojih imn sese U aktivu neprelazni imaju iste oblike
infinitiva kaQ i prelilznj glngoli
Ove oblike, tvorbu i upotrebll treba ukratko obrazloziti. Nacelna infinitivi imajll svojstva
gJagoJa ali i neka svojstva imenica. Glago\ske osobine in fin it iva se potvrduju Cinjenicom
da infinitivi mogu imati razl iCita vremena i aspekte (sto je svojstvo sarno glagola), imaju
oblike u aktivu i u pasivu, a karakteristike imenica se potvrouju cinjenicom da infinitivi
mogu biti upotrijebleni i u funkcUi i u funkciji objekta.
Infinitiv to write, to smile, to cut, to study, to eany, to send. Ovaj infinitiv je
naznacen u Ijecnicima. Njegovu tvorbu nije potrebno objasnjavati.
73
Upo!reb.
Infinitiv moze u recenici imati tri razlicite funkcije iako mu oblik ostaje nepromijcnjen.
Ta cinjenica odreduje i mogucnosti upotrebe infinitiva. Razni oblici infinitiva se u
engleskom jeziku testa upotrebljavaju, svakako mnogo ceSce U odnosu na nas jezik.
Stoga je neophodno pokazati mogucnosti upotrebe infinitiva u engleskom jeziku.
1. IntinHiv moze biti upotrijcbJjcn kao subjekt rcccllice.
• To succeed is always very desirable.
• To have that type of knowledge is useful.
• Th..ru is human.
• ~ is shameful.
• ~ i s useful and desirable.
• To insure the property is very important.
• To be seen there at that time is very important.
• To have understQod everything they said made him proud,
2. Int1nitiv sc moze upotrijebiti kao obJckt reccnice.
• Maria likes ~ in the morning.
• 1 prefer ~ rather than to watch TV.
• They began t.Q..JQlh about their trip.
• She started ~ bitterly.
· I was told ~ at home until noon.
• He promised not to be late.
e He didn't want to be invited as a witness.
• She didn't want to be seen with this boy.
• I'm supposed to be leaving at three o'clock.
3. lnfini!iv se moze upotrijebi!i kao dio pl'edikata (kao predikativ).
• OUf intention was to visit him.
• Her decision was ~ English.
• His expectation was ~ the exam,
• Their plan was to get up very early.
• That job is to be finished as soon as possible.
• This is not to be repeated again and again.
• The wonderful bridge can best ~ from this place.
4. Infinitiv se cesto upotrcbljava za iskazivanje namjerc. U takvoj upotrebi
infinitiv zamjenjuje izraz "in order to"
• He went to hospital1Q...Yi.s.i1 his friend.
• They came to Bosnia to invade it.
• Maria goes to the university ~ .
• My mother went to the supermarket ~ some fruit for us.
74
• I bought the history book WEill).
Some people go to the conecti just to be seen in the theater.
.. That job needs to be done as accurately as possible .
.. The patient went to his doctor to be examined .
.. They stayed at home for an important phone caB.
5, Mnogi glagoli zahtijevaju strukturu objekt + infinitiv. Ta se struktura najcesce
nazi va akuzativ 5 infinitiyom. NajceSCi glagoli koji traie akuzativ sa infinitivom
izrazavaju uglavnom zclju (wish wan1. desire); zapovijed (order. command. require.
force ask), zatim glagoli tell. advise encourage allow invite. like, djshke plan.
decide promise expect believe itd U avu kategoriju spada i konsl"atacija koja oznacava
indirektnu naredbu (imperativ),jer i alla takoder zahtijeva iofinitiv sa "to"
• My rather wanted me \0 be a teacher.
• They ordered us to leave the room.
• TIcI' mother asked her to buy some fruit.
• She asked him to go out and to walk their dog,
• They expected us to comc On time,
• She invited me to come to her birthday party,
• They allowed him many questions.
• She encouraged her brother harder and more often,
• I like him to I{O out and help his sister,
• They expected us to participale in this action.
• She encoUJ'uged her to buy a bicycle.
• I-Ie told her to buy a new skilt today.
• I asked him (her) not \0 be (not to come) late.
• Vie believed her to have been interrogated by a police officer for many hours.
• We believe him to be able to translate the text by himself.
• We consider them 10 be innocent.
• They ordered him to tell the truth.
Iza izvjesoog broja glagola kao slo su: to know to teach, to learn to show, upotrebljava
se rijec how,
• They know how to do it.
• He showed us how to swim.
• The teacher taught his students how to
• In this way we leam how to
e I didn't know how 10 help in this situation.
·1 didn't kno'w bow to tram!ate this sentence.
6. Odredeni broj pridjeva koji izrazavaju osje¢aIlje ( delighted, gJad, sorry,
pleased, sad, relieved, proud itd.), zatim neki drugi pridjevi koji ne izrazavaju osjecanje
i raspolozenje kuo fortunate, lucky, ready, anxious, eager, hesitant, reluctant itd,
nalaze da se iza njih upotrijebi intinitiv sa "to",
75
• I was glad a letter from you.
o She was relieved In find out that she passed the test.
a He is very lucky after such a terrible accident.
• Both children are anxiolls l..Q.gQ to the circus.
• The teacher is happy students.
• They were delighted 1.Q..g.Q to the mountains.
• They all \Nere sorry 1iLll£ill: such a bad news.
• We were fortunate 10 have such good friends.
• Who was ready 10 help us'!
7. Infinitiv sa "to" upotrebljava se poslije upitnih rijcci: what, whom, whose, which,
110\"', when, where, whether.
• \Ve really didn't know what to do.
• Have you already decided whom to invite to the dinner'?
• I don't know :i:Y.b.i.ctl or these three books to take.
• Nobody knows how they C(l1I be l/l?/um right "mv.
• Have you forgotten 110W to do it?
• Of course they will know when 10 come.
• I-lave you decided where to go?
• They didn't kno\N whether to !Jo or to wait.
• Nobody was sure \vhen to caillhe manager.
8. Poslije red nih brojeva, superlativa pridjcva fraza: the only, the only one
upotrebljava se infinitiv sa "to".
• That must be the best thing to do now.
• They were the last 10 ask about the accident.
• He was the first 10 us on our success.
• The oJ1(v one to (/vrce with Ollr slfggesstioll was Azra.
• It was the only news to be discussed at the press conference.
9. Nakon glagola to need i to dare kaJ se !lC ujJotrcbljavaju kao 1110ua!ni glagoli vee
kao glagoli sa samostalnim znacenjclTl upotrebljava se infinitiv sa "to". Uz gtagol ought
obavezan je lnfinitiv sa "to"
• He needs 1.QJlQ it inlluediate!!y.
• Does he really need 10 know all these details?
• I-Ie dared his rivals to try to run as fast as he did.
• You don't need to worry at aiL
• He ought 1Q.gQ. there every Saturday.
• We ought to write this letter immediately.
10. U usklicnim rccenicama upotrebljava se infinitiv sa "to".
• To ask such a question!
• To make such a mess!
To be: such a loser!
• To finish the job so quickly!
• To comc so late!
• To be so rude!
11. lza iZrrlZ{( too + pric(jeJ! i pl'h(jel' + enough o/;uve::{[njc illfjllifil' S'{[ "to ",
e They were too busy to hear and 1Q understancll1s
• He was too tired 1.QJJ..clp LIS.
e She was too nice something like that.
• His father was too sick to make sllch a trip.
• They arc not dever enough to such a good report.
• Maria wasn'l courageolls enough
Upotrcba krnjcg infinitiva
Vcomaje cesta upotreba krnJeg infinitiva (bare inHnitivc).
1. Iza defektnih glagola: can, could, must, may, might, shall, should, will, would, a
ponekacl iza glagola need I dare.Kad se ova dva posljeclnja glagola upotrijebe kao pomocni
obavezan jc krnji infinitiv.
• I think I shall do it tomorrow.
• I would help him in this situation.
• J-Je dare not kill him again.
• She need not come today at all.
• Cill1 you g.Q with me tomorrow night?
• It is cold and it might snow tomorrow.
• Probably she will forgive all of them.
• I-Ie said he could trans!8tc the letter without any help.
• You must gtljJJ2. very early tomorrow m0111ing.
2. [za glagola "to make" u znacenju prisiliti. navesti, nagovorili i glagola to let"
upotrcbljava se k111ji infinitiv. Iza g!agola "to help" upotrebljiv je infinitiv sa iii bez "to".
• Let them finish their job.
• Thc actrcss made the audience liw,gh.
• Tbis judge made him confess his crime,
• Let her write this letter first.
• My parents Mmc drive thcir car.
• Our tcacher usually let us discuss many topics with him.
• Don't let him gQ out. It's mining.
• His son and daughter him stop smoking.
• We didn'l make them writc this sentence.
• The boss mad.!: his secretary answer all business letters.
• \Vhat makes you think so?
77
o Hcl.u me (to) move out of this apartment.
o l:1..cll2 your mother fJ.Ql.s.QLthe table.
o Let's wait [or him in front of the theater.
o Ltlthem S1!Y. what they want to.
• We m8dc OUf father QJ.li.1 smoking.
3. Iza gtagola percipiranja kao: to see, to watch, to perceive, to hear, to mal'k, to
know, to fecI, to observe itd. upotrebljava se krnji infinitiv.
e He h£.ru:Q him Q.P.ru the door and QJJ.1cr his room.
o John .s.m:Y. me ~ into the classroom.
• Have you heard her ~ the piano?
• I felt somebody PJ,!.t their hand in my pocket and take out my wallet.
• They ll<:ill:d some dogs bark.
o Have you ever S£ill this actor perform?
• I have never observed him ~
• Did you watch me fight with that bully"
• I watched him1cave the place very slowly.
Napomena:Ako se ol'i glago/i percepc(je upotrebljavajll 1f pasivu ollda je obavezan
injinitil'sa "to" iza takvih g/agola.
• He ·was heard to ODen (opening) the door and to ellter his room.
• J\1ar;a was seen ~ (coming) into the classroom.
• Peter ),vas observed to clean (cleaaning) the place.
• Was the small child seen ~ (steaaling) the bike .
.. Nobody was seen (heard) to enter (entering) the room.
U ovakvim strukturama cescaje upotreba gerunda nego infinitiva sa "to",
IIli1nitiv perfekta obicllog (aktiv i pasiv)
Poslije infinitiva prezenta najccsce se upotrcbljava infinitiv perfekta obicnog (simple)
aktiva, pa njega treba obrazloiiti. Ovaj obUk se gradi od inllnitiva p0111ocnog glagola
"to have" i participa perfckta upotrijebljcnog glagola. Obicni infinitiv perfekta aktiva
ima dvostrllkll fllllkciju.
a) On se moze koristiti za tvorbu dva slozena vremena:
1. Future in the Past (They will have asked),
2. Past Conditional (They would have asked), pa je vaino da se nauce njegovi obliei;
b) Infinitiv perfekta obiCnog aktiva i pas iva ima samostalnu i dosta cestu upotrebu.
1. Infinitiv perfekta oznacava radnju koja se desila priie radnje izrazene liCnirn
glago\skim oblikom,
• He was velY happy iiLhave met such a nice girl.
e I was satisfied to haye been understood correctly .
.. He was very happy.1Q...h.ave metsuch a nice girL
.. I was satisfied to have been understood correctly.
• She didn't expect invited to her pal1y .
.. The rain seems to have stopped
• Azra was fortunate 1-0 have heen given a good scholarship .
.. We were sony not to have heen at that important party .
.. Susan claimed to have spent the whole night with her aunt .
.. The actor was said tQ.l13ve heen rewarded for his excellent performance .
.. The boss was informed to have won the first prize .
.. He was sorry not to have come in time to see her.
• They were graateful to have been warned in time .
.. I was surprised to have been told the whole truth.
• They were satisfied to have visited their uncle .
.. YOll seem to have done all that }V(fS possible to help yourji'£end.
2. U kombinaciji sa defektnim glagoIima infinitiv perfekta obicnog kazuje cia se prosla
radnja ni.ie izvrsiIa. Isto tako ovom konstrukcijom: modalni gIagol + infinitiv perfckta
iskazuje se neostvarena pretpostavka koja se odnosi na pros lost.
.. You could have written your report on Sunday.
• I'm your father and you shoqld have asked me about it.
.. You ought to have visited your friend in Sarajevo.
• They may not haye caught wday's last bus to Dubrovnik.
• It wallJe! have been vel)' pleasant to have gone to Washington D,C.
• They were said to have heen velY hard working students.
• Before taking the exam all students sh01!Ie! have contacted their professor .
.. You couldn't have done it at this moment.
• You ought to have met your father's friend a long time ago.
Preostali oblici infinitiva: trajni infinitiv prezenta, trajni infinitiv perfekta, ne moraju se
posebno objasnjavati, jer se rijetko upotrebljavaju.
79
GERUND
Gerund je glagolska imcnica koja sc gradi dodav3njcm nastavka iug infinitivu glagola.
To znaci da se gerund grad! na isti nnein k<1o i particip prezenta j da pri tome u gJagolu
mogu nastati iSle promjcnc kao i prj tvorbi participa prczenta. Tc promjcnc su naznaccnc
uz objasnjcnjc Present ContinuOLls (Progressive) Tense-a. (jcrund treba mzlikovati ad
imcl1ica koje se zavrsavaju na ·,·jog a kojc nCl1laju svojstva gcrtlnda: b.u.iJ.ili1lg. morning ...
evcnjn!,§:. bappening, marketing.
Gerund moie imati imenicka iii glagolska svojstva tj. biti upotrijebUcn i kao imcnica i
kao gJagolskii oblik, pa in cinjcnica odrcduje svc rnogucnosli upotrebe gcrunda a one su
vcoma razlicitc.
Kad gerund preuzima funkciju imenice tada 1110ze biti upotrijebUcn:
1. kao subjekt,
2. kao objekt, iii prepozicionalni objekt.
3. ispred gcrunda 1110gU stajati deter111inativi kao i isprcd drugih i111cnica (my, his,
our, the, a), ncb od prijcdloga (in, of itd.), hilo koji atribut (pridjev), a takodc
isprcd gcrunda 1110z,e stajati genitiv isto kao i ispred drugih i111enica.
Subjckt
Reading is a very useful skill.
• Hunting was a popular sport in England.
• Talking about politics is crucial for some people.
• Smoking is forbidden in this waiting room.
a Interrupting people white they arc talking is not. polite.
a Talking business is oilen very boring.
• Speaking English is very useful and desirable.
• Visiting other countries was always interesting.
• His coming hack in this moment is extremely useful.
a Beiug polite is helpful in many situations.
• A good beginning helps you to bc successfuL
• Going out to the mountains is always very interesting.
• Talking about this accident makes me nervous.
• Playing tennis is great fun.
• Dancing is extrcmely important in her liCc.
U primjerima koji su navedeni potvrduje se cinjenica da se gerund cesto upotrebljava
kao imeniea u funkciji subjekta. To je vaJjan i dovoljan razlog da se ovakvoj potrebi
gerunda mora posveCivati puna paznja
Objekt iii prepozicionaIni objekt
~ We all enjoy watching TV after Our dinner.
• They discussed g.Qing: to Australia next year.
• Some employees are in charge of organizing the meeting.
• Many people don't like !!ettjng up early in the morning.
• Mark was extremely afraid of ~ h i s documents.
• Their father gave up smoking
• Nobody objects to my p]mdng football evelY day.
• ft began snowing early in the morning.
• She hates thinking about his bad experience.
Determinativi
Determinativi se upotrebljavaju uz imeniee iIi llZ atributivno upotrijebljene pridjeve
koji neposredno prcthode imenicama. Detenninativi su najceSce odredeni Hi neodredeni
Clan, poscsivni pridjevi (my, your, his, her, our, their), pokazni pridjevi (this, that)
• I remember your asking me about that accident.
• How can I forget his being so rude to me?
• The boss doesn't like her coming late.
• You don't understand my playing chess alone.
• I hate their smoking in our I iving room.
• We listened to her beautiful piano playing.
• This yelling is stupid.
• Whose talking did you hear?
• Would you mind my shutting the window? It's rather cold.
Saksonski genitiv upotrijebljen ispred gerund a je takode jedna vrsta detenninativa.
• We have never liked Mirela's coming late.
• Anna'5 being lazy makes her parents unhappy.
• My mother's watching TV, even after midnight, makes me nervous.
To su bitne karakteristike gerund a koje ga svrstavaju u kategoriju imenica, tj. koje mu
daju imeniCka obiljdja i karakteristike. Medutim gerund ima puno karakteristika koje
su svojstvene giagolima. Drugim rijecima, gerund ima mnoga imenicka ali i mnoga
glagolska svojstva. Ii
Ii
1
;1,1
,Ii
":1
; i
Glagolska svojstva gcrunda
1. NajvaZll\ja glagolska karakteristika gerunda sastoji sc u tome da on ima razliCita
vremena, te da ima oblike u aktivu i oblikc u pasivu. Sadasnji gerund ai{1'iva je: asking
writing playing. c:utting. carrying itd. gerund prosH aktiva je: baving asked. having
written havinw played having carried, having Cllt itd. gerund sadasnji pasiva (samo
za prelazne glagole) je: being asked being written being played being carried. being
£.U.t..i1d..... i najzad prosli gerund pasiva je: having been asked having been written.
having been played, haying been carried. having been cut itd
• While ~ a report one must be very careful.
• I-laving written the report you can have a short rest now.
• The report, being written it can be mailed (sent) right now.
• The new piece having been played most of the audience left at intermission.
2. Druga glagolska karakteristika gerunda vidi se u Cinjenici da on maze imati objekt
kao i drugi glagoli.
• She doesn't like drinking alcohol
• She is fond of playing basketball
• We couldn't hclp laughing at his remark.
• The student left the room without answering my Questions.
• Having answered all the Questions the student felt happy and satisfied.
• These young boys and girls are proud of having studied English.
• Being asked many rude questions is a big offence.
• Being invited to your party is a great honor to me.
• Azra feels fortunate for having been given a good scholarship.
• I-laving explained the whole problem the secretary went back.
• Ilaviny been mked mall]! rude question £ was an embarrassment.
3. Sljedeca glagolska karakteristika se potvrduje cinjenicom da rull mog-u biti pridodati
adyerbi (prjiozj) koji se - kako je pozna to - dodaju glagolima da ih poblize oznace.
• They continued walking vcry quickly.
• We cannot forget his being rude
• He likes playing chess alone
• She admitted her being wrong.
• We liked doing it correctly and neatly.
• They thanked us for heing nice to thcm.
o The secretary was afraid of doing it incorrectly
• Having answered all questions correctly, the student was happy.
• Please, excuse my being late this moming
• They went to the theater instead of staying at home .
.. Having been invited early enough we had plenty of time to prepare evelything.
Uz glagol "be" kao i uz neke druge glagole (feel, seem, look, sound itd.) ispred gerunda
moze biti upotrijebljen pridjev, imenica iii imenska fraza,
• It is eaasy to understand hisjeeling awkward.
.. His sOlloding sleepy on the telephone was because he had been drugged.
Upotreba
Gerund se veoma testo upotrebljava iii u funkciji imenice iIi u funkciji glagola, pa.ie
potrebno poznavati ol<oll1osti u kojima je njegova llpotreba ne sarno pozeljna vee i
potrebna.
1.. Cestaje upotreba gerunda iza glagola koji iskazuju pocetak, zavrsetak iii nastavak
glagolsl<e radnje. Takvi glagoli su: finish, quit, stop, keep (keep on), begin, start, end,
continue, go on, postpone, put off itd.
• He finished reading his book at six o'clock.
• His father has some heatt trouble and he must quit smoking
• Do you ever stop talking?
.. Keep writing your report and finish it before noon.
o They will begin writing as soon as they come home.
• They put off their travel iog to Germany.
• The pianist continued (kept on) playjng the piano
2. U ovu kategoriju spadaju i glagoli koji iskazu.iu osjecanja : enjoy mind appreciate,
love hate like dislike. zatim gJagoli: avoid delav consider talk about. speak, mention.
suggest prefer itd
.. She enioyed (liked loved) swimming at noon and gQ.ing out in the evening.
• Many people hate {dislike} going to the dentist.
• Did you consider moving to another apartment?
• I hope you don't mind my smoking
• They enjoyed reading vel)' much and they talked ahout reading a long time .
.. This woman avoided working late at night.
.. They very much when they were young.
• My aunt always preferred traveling by air.
3. Poslije izraza: it is no lISC, how about, it is no good, I can't help, to look forward
to, to feel like, to be accustomed to, to be fond of, to be afraid of, to be proud of, to
get (be) used to, to be interested in, would you mind, do you mind, zatim poslije
pridjeva worth i busy upotreb\java se gerund .
.. Many young people are proud ofbejng students .
.. I'm still not used to getting up so early.
• It's no good talking about it now.
e Is it worth trying to save them in these circumstances?
83
• We cOlll<1n'1' help smiling all the time.
• Do YOlllllind my smoking in this room?
• Would you mind my coming in a bit late tomorrow?
• ['m looking fonyard to meeting you there.
• It wou! d be WOl1 h trying it once more.
o They are very (ond of walking early in the morning.
G He WilS afraid of being recognized there, and he decided Ilot to go.
o How about not saying anything about it?
• My both children arc interested in plaYing basketball.
• I don't feel like taking the English test right now.
4. Gerund perfekta izrazava radnju koja prethodi radnji izrazenoj licnim glagolskim
oblikom.
• I'm extremely sorry for having lied to you this sad news.
• The student went out without having answered my questions.
• That little girlleji the room lvitliout bein/( taught hmv to sing this song.
• He traveled abroad without having bought a new suit.
• He went to school after haying written his homework.
• Azra felt happy after having passed all the necessary exams.
• After having been lold what to do she began doing it.
• We are sorry for having mentioned your man"jage troubles.
Napomena: Oblici gerunda aktiva i pasiva '". asking i being asked, £1!..l2Q.
[Ol'!ui identiCnj ob1icima participa sadaSnjeg aktjya j pasiya . To isto vazi i
za oblike gerunda aktiva i pasiva proslog koji su formal no jdentj¢ni sa
obJjcjma pa!1icipa proSlog aktjytl i pn$jya' having asked i having been asked.
PARTICIPI
Participi su vrsta rijeci koje mogu imati dvojake osobine: a) osobine glagola, b) osobine
pridjeva.
Kao pridjevi participi stoje ispred imenica i pokazuju njihova svojstva. Kao i svi drugi
pridjevi mogu se upotrijebiti atributivno (ispred imenica) iii predikativno (kao diD
predikata).
Postoje po dva oblika paIiicipa aktiva i pasiva: particip sadaSnji i pD!1'icip perfekta
Particip prezenta
Tvorba patticipa prezenta i promjene kaje pri tome nastaju su obrazlozeni u dijelu koji
se odnosi na tvorbu i upotrebu Present Tense Progressive,
Paliicip prezenta sluzi da se pomoctt njega grade svi oblici trajnih (progressive) vremena
i 0 toj fuukeiji bilo je rijee! na vise mjesta prilikom njihovih objasnjenja. Ali particip
prezenta moze imati i sljedece cetiri samostalne funkcije tj. mogucnosti upotrebe:
• atributska upotreba (pddjev ispred imenice da je poblize oznaei);
• predikativna upotreba (pridjev koji se dodaje glagolu - predikatu - da mu dopuni
znacenje);
• upotreba u sluzbi skracivanja recenica;
• dopuna izvjesnim ustaljenim frazama.
Atributivna upotreba: a flying bird, a crying child, a smiling girl, a singing actress, a
lasting peace, breaking news, an encouraging event, a room with running water, working
people, a freezing wind itd.
Predil{ativ : a bird is flying, a child is crying, a girl is smiling, an actress is singing, the
peace is lasting, the event is encouraging itd.
Skracivanje recnica: Coming borne late at night, she went to bed, to have a good rest.
(when she came home ...... )
• Knowing this we decided to give up,
• We enjoyed having such nice weather (as we had, .)
• We thanked him for d.illn.g us such a favor; (because he did us ... ).
• Being recognized he ran away as quickly as he could, (When they",)
• They saw a lot of people waiting for the train (who were waiting for ... )
• L O Q k i n ~ up Maria saw her good school friend. (When she looked up ... )
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Ovoj kategoriji pripadaju glagoli koji iskazuju. fizicke percepcijc: to watch to see. to
hear to notice to smell to look at to listen to to observe zatim g!agoli: to feel. to
jer se iza njih skracuje zavisna rccnica.
I watched (saw observed) the plane landinb{ (The plane that was landing.)
We heard (noticed) something moving behind us, (that something was)
I;uncll something hlli:ni.!:u! in the kitchen. (that something is burning ... ) They
at (watched, saw, observed) the birds which were ..
John felt the whole hOllse shaking, (That the house was shaking,)
All the students the park after the lecture,
Ustaljene Craze
Neki idiol11atski izrazi podrazlfJllijevajll lIpotrebu partieljJa jJrczcnta koji doplIl!javaju
znacenje idioma. lilkvi idiomi Stl dosta cesti i II uSl1lenom ill pisanom /wllluniciranju.
• Generally speaking
e Strictly speaking,
• .illd.giug from his discussion.
• Accurately calculating
• Properly considering
• Carefully thinking
• Roughly estimating
• KnowiofJ this fact.
• Speaking as an honest man
• Speaking as a human being,
• Frankly speaking
Napoll1ena: Oblici gerunda sadasnjeg - asking, being asked; su po formi identicni
obLicima participa prezenta aktiva i pasiva.
Particip prosli aktiva ima dva oblika u pasivu jedan oblik u aktivu. U aktivu se prosli
particip gradi od glagolskog oblika having kome se dodaje particip perfekta, Particip
pasiva gradi se od gJagolskog oblika haying been i participa perfekta gJagola koji
zelimo upotrijebiti. Drugi je particip prosli pas iva zapravo preterit i on je kod svih
pravilnih i ,iednog rnanjeg broja nepravilnih glagoJa identiCan sa participom perfekta,
Pmiicip proSli aktiva: having asked, having written, having finished, having sent,
having ordered, having done ......
Pmiicip proSli pasiva' having been asked, having been written, having been fInished,
having been sent, baving been ordered, having been done ....
Upotreba
1. Participom proslim iskazuje se zayr$ena radnja koja se dogodila prije Deke
druge prosle radnje. To znaci da ovi participi (aktiva i pas iva) preuzirnaju funkciju
pluskvamperfckta.
• Haying finished his entire job, Peter went home.
o Having recovered from her surprise, Mary described the danger.
• Having been warned by a policeman, John gave up.
• Elwin&" heen informed of the danger, the commander knew what to do.
• Havjng been asked about the problem the scientist suggested the solution,
• IIaving: read all the business letters the manager made his decision.
• Having seen the accident, Jane left the place immediately.
• visited by his schoolmates James felt happy,
2. Partjcjp prQSli karist! se za tyorbw
a) slozenih vremena:
• We have visited our relatives.
• They have written two letters.
• Maria would have asked me if she had me.
b) svih vremena pasiva:
• All students are asked (are have been asked, were asked, had been
asked) to study a little harder.
• The repOlt is being written (was written, has been written. will be written had
been written) according to the instructions.
3. Prosti pmticipi takoder se upotrebljavaju u strukturi kQja se zove "causative infinitive"
Ovom strukturom se izrazava radnja koju ne vrsi subjekt recenice vee neko drugo lice
po zahtjevu subjekta recenice. To get i to have g!agoli su pomoC:ll kojih se gradi struktura
"causative infinitive".
• lk must have his hair Q1!J right now.
• My father got Chad) his suit made,
• We had (got) our car repaired.
• The manager 1ill.d all the business letters translated into French.
• She always lli.1i.her
• Before the party we had (got) our room decorated
• Did Mirsad have (get) his passport renewed?
• He got (had) his letter lo'lllil T
• Why do you want to
• Didn't they have (get) their apartment u.ni.nkd?
• She gill her clothes diy-cleaned
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4. Partieip prosli u strukturi "causative infinitive" sa glagolom had (get u ovom slucaju
IlQ moZe biti upotriiebJjen) ima donekle izmijenjcDo znacenie gJago)a "to have" Had, u
kombinaciji sa participom proSlim znad pretrpjcti stetu, nesto podnositi, dozivjeti, itd.
• My father had his car ~ two days ago,(Mom oeu ostctili su" .. )
• I krlmY that they had their apartment QrQkru into on Saturday night. (Znam da je
neko provalio u njihov stan .... )
• During the bombardment a lot of buildings had their windows ~ . (Na mnogo
zgrada su polomljeni prozori u toku bombardovanja ... )
• We hillL enough money ~ for new furniture, ( Ustedeno je dosta novea ... )
5. Pmtieip pros!i maze se upotrijebiti i kao pridjev:
• Why do you keep these QrQkru bottles?
• We saw many ~ cars in this broad street.
• Two lusl.ehildren were found yesterday.
• Look, there is a ~ couple over there.
• I don't like these crO\vded streets.
• He read a 1!'2nsJated story about the war in Bosnia.
• Do you have a renewed passport?
• They ordered scrambled eggs for breakfast.
• ~ food can be dangerous to eat.
• A woman with the depressed look crossed the street.
S LAG A NJ E V REM E N A
Medusobni odnosi vremena u engJeskoj slozenoj recenici Stl za nase studente i ucenike
komplicirani kako na razini pojmovnog razumijevanja, taka i na razint samostalne, vlastite
prirnjene pravila 0 slaganju vrernena. To je, naravno, posljedica cinjenice da takvih
jezickih kategorija nema u nasem jeziku, pa se nn takvu nov1nu tesko priviCi, nar06to
kad se radi 0 dosljednoj primjeni pravila 0 slaganju vremena-,
Pravila 0 sJaganju vremcna uspostavJjaju odnose !TIedu vremenima u zavisno slozenoj
recenici, a ti SU odnosi veoma karakteristicni za engleski jezlk. Oni odreduju sljedece
odnose:
• aka je u gJavnoj recenici upotrijebljen preterit (Past Tense - aktiv ili pasiv) onda u
sporednoj rc<enici mora hiti upotrijcbljen takode Past Tense (aktiv iii pasiv)
za radnju koja se dcsava istovrcmeno sa radnjom u glavnoJ recenici;
• ako je glagol u glavnoj recenici izrazen preteritom (Past Tense aktiv iIi pasiv),
onda radnja u sporednoj recenici koja se desila prijc radnje glavne reccnice
mora biti izrazcna pluskvamperfektorn (aktiv iii pasiv);
• ako je radnja u glavnoj recenici izrazena preteritom (aktiv ili pastY), glagoli u
sporednoj recenici koji izrazavaju buducnost moraju biti u foturu proslom
(Future in the Past).
e ako je radnja glavne recenice izrazena prezentom iii pcrfektom (Present Perfect)
iii futurom, glagol upotrijebljen u sporednoj recenici moze biti u rna kojem
vremenu, zavisno od konteksta i smisla recenice.
1. Istovremcne radnje
• He :wid he understood English very welL (Rekao je da razumije ... )
• She 1.hru1.ght that the lecture very important. (Mis1ila je da je predavanje veoma
vazno).
• I QQll.ldn'1" remember what his (Nisam se mogao sjetiti imena).
• 1 that it was raining. (Primijetio sam da pada kisa)
• He W1lkd to tell her who he illlJi. (Htio joj je reci ko je on).
• I 1.hru1.ght my friends at home.(Mislio sam cia su mi prijatelji u kuCi).
• He drank because he illlJi thirsty. (Pia je jer kllli.l zedan).
• He all morning because he illlJi happy. (Svirao je cijelo jutro jer .il;.J2.iQ.
sretan. )
• It was raining when I (Pad ala je kisa kad sam dosao kuci).
Napomena:lz gornjih je da mi na nas jezik moramo prevoditi engleski
Past Tense nekada nashll sadasnjim vremenolll a nekada nasim pelfektom,
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Kantekst i smis(lo recenice adre(tl!je li l1{{sem jeziku kaje cemo ad fa dva
vremena upolrijebiti, dok u engleslwlJI Vl'emel1ll pravilo kale da se za
istovf'emene radnje 11 sporednoj recenici fI10ra upolrijebiti Past Tense (aktiv
iIi pasiv) ako je u glaviloj recenici upatrijebljen Past Tense (akriv iii pasiv).
lzuzetak
Od gomjeg pravila 0 obaveznosti upotrebc prcterita u sporednoj recenici ako je u glavnoj
upotrijebljeno to isto vrijeme izuzele su sporednc recenice u kojima se iskazuju zakoni
prirode, opec poznate naucne istine, opee prihvaeenc cinjenicc.
• I happy to hear that she is. healthy again. (Cinjenica .. pa stoga izuzetak)
• We were told that you ill.:Q Me Smith's daughter. (lzuzetak ... cinjenica)
• He knew that the eatth cinjenice . .izuzetak)
• He 1.Q.W us tlwi the sun rises in the east and SJj,S in the west.
• We knew that Mostar· is. a beautiful town. (Konstatacija cinjcnice)
• He didn't know where Zenica is. What a shame!
• We were told that the winters in Hercegovina are mild.
• The scientist described the moon and s.ill.d that the moon goes round the earth.
(Konstatacija naucne cinjenice pa stoga izuzeee od pravila)
• Of course, we knew that spring March 21 st and ends] une 20th.
Past Tense u gJavnoj Past Perfect u sporednoj
Kad je u glavnoj upotrijebljcn preterit onda se u sporednoj recenici mora upotrijebiti
pluskvamperfekt da izrazi radnlu koja se desHa priie radnie glavne re¢enice
• He silld that he had understood everything perfectly, (Rekao ie da ie razumio ... ).
• She thought that the lecture had been very important. (.M.i£ila je da je predavanje
Qil.Q veoma vazno).
• We realized that the mayor had made a terrible mistake. (Shvatili smo cia jc
gradonacclnik vee napravio uzasnu gresku.)
• The professor lllid uo idea what his students had been doing before he came.
(Profesor nije uopCe znao sta su njegovi studenti rudili pdje nego je on dosao).
e She 1llid me that she had received my e-mailmcssage. (Rekla je daje uobila moju
e moil poruku).
• He silld that he had writtetrthe report. (Rekao ie cia ie napisao izvjestaj.)
• 1 that they had not been waiting too long. (liadao sam se cia nisu predugo
cekali.)
• I2id you k.nmY what he had doue? (Jesi ti znao sta je on uraclio?)
Gornji primjeri potvduju da ovaj tip recellica prevodi na nas jezik perfektom, iako se
radnja sporedne recenice desila prijc glavne reccnice,
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IZl1zetak
Od gornjeg pravila koje kazuje da se II sporednoj recenici mora upotrijebiti
pluskvamperfekt za prijevremenu radnju, ako je II gJavnoj upotrijebljen preterit postoji
i jedan izuzetak. Naime, aka radnja zavisne recenice prethodi glavnoj a desilli_MUl
odredenom Spomcl1utom trenntkn ptile glavne recenice I! proSlostj ondn l! sporedmu
recenicj nije obayezan pluskyDlUperfckt.
• We were aware that our friends arrived in Mostar two years ago.
• We knew that the war in Bosnia started in 1992.
• The boss was informed that our products won the first prize last Sunday.
• I was told that my relative kfi Zenica last month,
• The witness s.illd that he in i 976,
Preterit 11 gIavnoj a buducnost u sporednoj recenici
Kadje radnja glavnc recenice izrazena preteritom a radnja sporedne recenice odnosi se
na buducnost, onda se ta buducnost iskazuje upotrebom futma II prosJosti (Future in
the Past)
• They wrote that they would come on Sunday.
• I was quite sure he would not do such a thing
• He silld he would be very tired then,
• We didn't know it so difficult.
• We were told that our uncle would arrive at 5 p.m.
• Semir thought he would leave for Sarajevo on Monday.
• They they would have to work very hard,
• It was known that the next meeting would be held on Saturday,
Odsustvo sJaganja vremena
Ako je 1I glavooj recenici upotrijebljen prczen t (Prcscn t Tense- aktiv ili pasiv), pcrfel(t
(Prcsent Perfect Tense -·aktiv ili pasiv) iii futur (Future Tense iii pasiv), onda
(lcma slagnn,ia vrcmcna tj, U spoJ'cdnoj reCenici mule biti upotrijcblieno 1113 koie
II sklad!! sa zahtieyima konteksta
• She will probably tell you that she was not home at noon.
e She is telling you that she is at home,
• She has told you that she is at home now at home, home, had been
at home then).
• I am quite sure everything is fine tine, fine, has been fine had been
fine, lYllllld be fine).
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iii
f
,I
I
• He has. just 1ill.d me that he is very happy ( ~ happy, was happy, would be
bappy, bas been bappy) tbere .
• Maria says she is writing (wrote. has written. will wriite will be writing ... ) her
report.
UPRAVNI I NEUPRAVNI GOVOR
U razgovoru ucesnici cesto iskazuju necije tvrdnje, konstatacije, poricanja, pitanja itd.
Pri tome to se maze uciniti oa elva oaeina:
l.citiranjem tj. doslovnim navodenjem necijih rijeCi (upravni gayor);
2.prepricavanjem sadrzaja iskaza, tvrdnje, poricanja, pitanja bez doslovnog
ponavljanja govomikovih rijeci (neupravni gavor)
U neupravnom su govonl prema pravilim3 engleskog jezika obavezne neke promjene
uzrokovane drugacijim, izmijcnjcnim kontckstua!nim okvirom. Tc se uglavnol11
odnose oa:
1. promjene liea U odnosu oa upravni govor,
2. promjene u prilozima za mjesta, vrijeme, pokaznim pridjevima itd.,
3. promjena u gJagolskim vremenima,
4. promjene strukture upitnih recenica,
5. promjene strukture imperativa,
1. Promjene lica
Promjena liea U odnosu na direktni govor logicna je i nije sarno svojstvena engleskom
vee i drugimjezicima. To je iogicna posJjedica promjcne situaeijskoga kontekstualnog
okvira. Pravila 0 promjeni liea nalazu da se:
You
We
mijenja u he iii she;
he, she iIi I;
they.
Primjeri ee pokazati kako se te promjene prakticno izvrsavaju.
2. Promjena u prilozima i pridjevima
here mijenja se u there,
today that day (iii se izostavlja)
tonight that evening (iii se izostavi)
tomon'ow the next the following day
yesterday the day before, the previous day
the next the fo!lowing week
this I these that I those
ago
thus
before iii se izostavlja
so itd.
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3. Promjcnc 11 glagolskilll vrelllcnima
Najvise promjena u neupravnom govoru desava se u vremenima glagola. U neupravnol11
govoru obavczna jc prillljena pravila 0 slaganju vremcna.
BuduCi da su pravila a slaganje vremena objasnjena i potvrdena primjerima u poglavlju
o slaganju vrcmena nije potrebno to i ovdje ponavljati. Samo ce se naznaciti nekoliko
primjera kao ilustracija upotrebe neupravonga govora .
.. He says, " I study very hard every day."
• He says (that) he studies very hard every day.
• Ali He said (that) he studied vcry hard every day
• They say: "We shall never stay in this hotel again."
• They say that they will never stay in that hotel again.
• Ali: Thev said they would never stay in that hotel again.
• My mother says, " My uncle arrived three days ago".
• My mother says that her uncle arrived three days ago.
• Ali: My mother said that her uncle had arrived three days before
• The manager says: "I am too busy now, but if you come tomorrow, I'll be able to
see you then."
• The manager says that he is too busy but if! come tomorrow he'll be able to see
me (you us,) then
• Ali: The manager said that he was too busy that day but if I came the next day he.
would be able to sec me then.
• My friend says: " I will go back to the school because I forgot my books there."
• My friend says that he (she) will go back to the school because he (she) forgot his
(her) books there.
• Ali: My friend said that he (she) would go back to the school because he (she)
hnd fOI'f'ottcII his (her) books there.
• The teacher has just told us:"You are quite wrong."
• The teacher has just told us that quite wrong
• The teacher will tell us: "YOII are quite wrong. "
• The teacher will tell us that we are quite wrong.
Svi navedelli potvrduju cia se pravila 0 slaganju vremena primjenjuju samo u
sluc\lju da glavna koristi preterit (mid) i cia tog slagU/{ja ne1l1({ ako je u glavnoj
upotrUebljel1 prczcnt, peJ.fekt Wlutw: Druge promjene se, naravno,
i fwd nema s/aganja vrcmena (1((10 pl'omjene z({mjenica, prUoga itd)
4. Promjena struktufc upitne recenice u neupravnom govonl
Prenosenje sadrzaja pitanja u indirektnom govoru ima svoje specificnosti. Umjesto
glagola "to say", "to tel!" upotrebljavaju se u indirektnim pitanjima glagoli "to ask" "to
want to know" "to inquire" "to wonder." U upitnim recenicama koje pocinju nekom
upitnom rijeci: When, which, who, why, what, how many, how much itd. te upitne
rijeCi tl inc1irektnom govoru koriste se kao veza (spona) izmedu glavne i sporedne
recenice.
Medutim II upitnim recenicama u kojima ocma upitnih rijeei upotrebljavaju 5e if iIi
whether u neupravnom govoru kao veznici izmedu glavne i sporedne recenice.
VctiflO je napomenuti da se red rUea If indil'ektnim pif{U!jima ne mijenja If odnosli na
po/prcifle rchmicc, (j. oCilla Dcomielle reda r(je(i i t1('/I/(/ illverz(ie kQla jf obaJleztla /I
direktnhll nitan;;m{/.
• "Have you written your homework'!"
• My father wants to know ifT have written my homework. (Nema slaganja vrernena
.ier je glavna recenica pocela prezentom.Druge promjene su prisutne).
• "Who goes with you to the park?" my mother asked.
• My mother asked who went with me to the parle
• "How are you?" my teacher asked me.
• My teacher asked me how I was CRed rije¢i kao u potvrdnoj recenici: 1 was)
• The manager asked: "Why did you do such a thing?"
• The manager asked why 1 had done such a thing.
• "How often did you go to football matches last year?" my friend asked.
• My friend asked how often I had gone to footba!! matches the year before,
• "Will all the children go to the zoo today?'
• My father wanted to know whether (iO all the children would go to the zoo,
• "Are you going to the cinema tonight?"
• He asked me if(whether) I was going to the cinema that night,
• "Who can drive a car?" a woman asked.
• A woman asked who could drive a car
• "Azra doesn't know when she will go to the concert".
• He said that Azra didn't know when she \,,:ould go to the conceli.
9S
• "Where were you three weeks ago?"
• She asked me (she wanted to know) where I bad been three weeks earlier
• "May I go with you to the cinema?"
• He wondered ifhe might go with me to the cinema.
5. Imperativ u indirektnom govoru
U zapovjednom nacil1u takode nastaju promjene kad se on upotrijcbi u indirektnolTI
govoru. Infinitiv sa "to" zamjenjuje imperativ upotrijebljen u upravnom govoru. U
tom slucaju se u glavnoj recenici najCeSce koristijedan od sljedecih glagola: to ask to
Q£d.er.. to tell to want to command.
• "Write this letter please" the manager said.
• TIle manager told me to write the letter
• "Come to my house at t\VO p.m. so that we can go out for a walk".
• She wanted me to come at two o'clock so that we could go Qut for a walle
• Be in your office tomorrow at 8 a.m.
• I was told (asked) to be in my office at 8 a.m. the next day.
• My mother said to me " Go out and do the necessary shopping"
• My mother told me to go out and do the necessary shopping.
Upotreba glagola "to say' i "to tell"
Znacenja ovih dvaju glagoJa su slicna ali Be identicna. Medu njima postoje odredene
razlike i njihova pravilna upotreba pricinjava odrcdcne tcskoce govornicima bosanskog
jezika.
Glagol "to say" upotrebljavamo u ovim slucajevima:
1. U upravnom govoru tj. u citiranju obavezna je upotreba "to say".
• He said: " Come in, please."
• They said: "We will not go with you."
• My uncle said: "I have read all the reports on this accident"
• The teacher said: "You had written the dictation better than 1 hoped."
2. U neupravnom govoru maze se upotrijebiti glagol "to say" i "to tell". "To say"
obavezan je aka se ne spominje osoba kojoj se govori. Ako je porn en uta lice (u tom
slucaju objekat) mora se upotrijebiti "to tell"
• They said: ''The driver had an accident"
• They said that the driver had had an accident.
& Ali: The)! told liS that the driver had had an accident
• She said: "I am going to visit my friend"
• She said that she was going to visit her friend.
• Ali: She told her lUother that she was going to visit her friend
• Sam said: "1 am very busy and I cannot belp you now"
• Sam said that he was very busy and he could not help me then.
• Ali: Sam told me that he was very busy and that he could not help me then.
3. To say nikada se ne upotrebljava sa imperativom u indirektnom
govoru, Umjesto njega obavezanje "to tell"
• The teacher said: "Sit down please"
• We were told to sit down
• She said: "Be careful, because that can be dangerous"
• She told me to be careful because that could be dangerous
Navedeni primjeri pokazuju da se ova dva gJagola ("to say", "to tell") sarno u jed nom
slucaju upotrebljavaju u slicnim, ne identicnim okolnostima kada se upotrebljavaju u
neupravnorn govoru, (Razlike u njihovoj upotrebi u neupravnom govoru su vidljive u
prethodnim objasnjenjima i primjerima), U 5vim drugim slucajevirna mogucaje upotreba
sarno jednog glagola: u upravnom govoru sarno 5e "to say", II imperativll
moguce je upotrijebiti sarno "to tell".
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POGODBENE RECENICE
Pogodbene (kondicionalne) su jedna vrsta zavisno s,lozcnih recenica. One sc sastoje od
glavne i pogodbene, tZY. if recenice. Ifrecenica iskazuje uvjet, a 11102e prethoditi glavnoj
reccnici ili se nalaziti iza nje. Pored veznika if u pogodbenoj roccnici maze se upotrijebiti "i
vezl1ik unless koji zapravo znaCi if ll.Ql.. Posta.unks..s. sadrzi u sobi i ncgaciju glagol iza
tog vcznika nc moze biti upotrijcblicn U odrjCoo!J) Qbliku u zavisnoj reCenici
U glavnoj receoici moze se upotrijebiti i odricni i potvrdni oblik. Pri upotrcbi veznika
~ sporedna receniea maze prethoditi glavnoj iii biti upotrijebljena iza nje.
Kondicionalne recenice mogu im3ti i jos oeke veznike kao: Q1} condition that. in case
(that), supposing, provided that itd. Medutim veznik if najcescije pa se stoga pogodbene
recenice cesto nazivaju if-recenicailla.
Pogodbene recenice iskazuju jcdnu od tri Illogucnosti:
.. ako se ispuni neki uvjet ostvarit ce se odredena glagolska radnja,
.. kad hi se ispunio ncki uvjet ostvarila bi se odredena radnja,
• da sc bio ispunio neki uvjet ostvarila bi so neka radnja.
Prema tome u pogodbenim recenicama iskazuje se uslov za izvrsenje glagolske radnje u
sadasnjosti, buducnosti iii u proslosti. Taj uslov izrazen u if-recenicama moze biti
trojak:
• Ostvariv (ispunjiv) uvjet
.. Neostvaren ali ipak moguc (ispunjiv) uvjet.
.. Neostvariv (irealan, neisjJwv'iv) /./vjet.
Imaju6i to u vidu sve pogodbcne recenice dijeliI110 na tri tipa (v1'ste). P1'voI11 tjpu pripadaju
po god bene recenice sa ostvarivim uvjetom, drugom recenice sa neostvarenim
(neispunjenim) ali moguCim (ispunjjvilll, ostvarivilll) uvietorn a treCem (jpu pripadaju
recenice u kojima su uvjcti ncostvarivi. nemogu¢i irealni
Pogodbenc recenice prvog tipa
U pogodbenim recenicama prvog tipa upotrebljava se u glavnoj recellici prezcnt, futur
(aktiv Hi pasiv), ili imperativ, a u if rccenici prezent iIi perfekt (aktiv iIi pasiv).
Ovak;yj odnosi pogodbenih i glavnih recenica postoje i u nasem jeziku pa oni za nase
studente (ucenike) ne predstavljaju neke poteSkoce.
!
!
I
jV(l//)
,
• If you gQ.QJJ1. LlLiliu: here.
• If they want to play, they will play.
o If you Yisi.t him, tell him the news.
• Ask her about it if you ~ hel:
• 1fT have misinformed you, I am really velY sony.
\:
• They ffilLn.ut know anything abollt it if you haven't told them.
• If you don't hllrt:)'. you ~ . l i l l . e .
• Unless you invite him, he wi.l.Ln.uLcome. (If you don't invite him, he will not
come).
• Unless she kQlIl.QS. in time, we cannot have our meeting. Ifshe doesn't come ...
• Water will not boil unless we hkill it to 100 degrees C.
9vom tipu pripadaju recenice koje po ~ j i nisl! PQgodbene ali po svojoj 5uStjnj
one to jesu. U njima se ne mora (a maze) upotrijebiti if kao pogodba vee rijeCi koje
ukazuju na uobicajcno ponavljanje radnje U odredenim razmacima when, always when,
whenever, every time.
• We go to the mountains when (whenever. always when) the weather is nice.
o' When I fuel tired I gQ to bed. (If! feel tired, I go to bed).
• Every time r have a fever r g.Q to my doctor. (If f have., .I go to ..
Pogodbene rccenice drugog tipa
U ovoj vrsti pogodbenih recenica postavlja se uslov koji maze biti suprotan cinjeniCnoID
stanju iIi jednostavno izrazavati nesto sto nije uracunato kao Cinjenica. Drugim rijecima
uslov koji se postavUa neostvarenje, neispunjen ali De j nemogu¢ neostyarjy. neispunjiv.
U recenici:" Ifhe came he would help us" (Da doae, on bi nam pOlTIogao) pravo znacenje
je: on nije dosao i ne maze nam pomoei, ali to ne znaci da je apsolutno sigurno da neee
doci i da nece mod pomoCi. Ove recenice dakle konstatira daje malo vjerovatno, ali ne
nemoguce, cia ce se uvjet ispuniti.
Ova vrsta recenica je nesto tela za nase stuclente (L1ccnike) .ier je obavczna primjena
pravila 0 slaganju vrcmena. To znaci cia se u glavnoj obavczno upotrebljava
kondicional prvi a u if rcccnici preterit (aktiv iii pasiv).
Na nas jczik prevodimo ovakve reeeniee sa "da"+ prezent (cia ima, da dade, cia upita
itd) ili "ako"+ kondicional (ako bi on imao, aka bi do sao, ako hi ... )
• Ifhe hili!. time, we would finish the laboratOlY tests. (Da on ima vremena, .. ili Ako
bi imao vremena .... )
o He would bllY that car ifhe b.illt enough money, (Kupio bi da ima, aka bi imao)
• IfI h.ad more patience, I would listen to him all the time.
• If you didn't carUk.with me, I W l l l ~ for a walk. (Da ne ides ... Ja ne bih)
99
• He would work harder if he gill.. better pay. (Radio bi ... Ako bi imao)
• They could call on us if they lY.f!ll.lli! to. (MogIi bi svratiti .... Kad bi voljeJi)
.. You would not feel such pain if you took a painkiller.
• If you knew that, I would be very happy .
.. If they more careful, they wouldn't be in trouble.
Ovom tipu rccenica pripadaju i one kojc se ad nose na buducnost tj. Cija ce se radnja
ostvariti iii se neee ostvariti u buducnosti. Najccsce se U ovakvim reecnicama upotrijebi
i neki prilog vremena koji ukaztve na to da se radi {) buducQj radnji, ali se nckad takvi
prilozi vremena izostave, l1a1'061to aka jc 1z konteksta jasno da je to buduca radnja.
• If they could come tomorrow, they would help us.
• If I were there next week, I would visit him.
• Ifhe the 6 o'clock bus tomorrow, he would not be late.
• If] were given that book next Saturday, I WQuld read it by Monday
• Ylmlld you be surprised if you gut the money tomorrow'?
• If she on time next Sunday, we would take her to the theater.
U ovom tipu recenica maze se takoder umjesto ifupotrebljavati unless (ukoliko ne, aka
ali je i u tom slucaju ohavezno primjenjiv3ti pravila 0 slaganju vremena. U rccenici
sa unless glagol mora biti u potvrdnom obliku.
• Unless they b.uilLthat bridge, we would not be able to go over there,
• The students would not pass the exam unless they worked harder,
• You would not tell me this unless you sure.
• Water would not' boil unless we it to 100 degrees C.
Po god bene recenice treceg tipa
kondicionalnc recenice treceg Upa kazemo da su irealne. neispunjiyc ncostvarivc.
One se odnose na proslost a proslost se ne maze korigovati (korigirati) tj. aka uviet l!
proSlos1i niie bio zadovaljen ta cinienica se vise Be mOZe izmijeniti, pogodba je
neostvariva, neispunjiva, Karakteristicno je za ovaj tip recenica da se u zavisnoj recenici
upotrebljav. pluskvamperfekt (Past Perfect Tense) - aktiv iii pasiv - a u glavnoj
kondicional drugi.
Ove vrste recenica prevodimo na nas jezik sa "da" + perfekL Njihova semantika
podrazumijeva da se uvjet nije ispunio i posto se odnosio na proslost, ne moze se ni sada
ispuniti, ne moze se korigovati, jer se proslost ne moze mijenjati.
• ffyou had come here in time, you would have seen him.CDa si dosao, vidio bi ga,
ali nisi dosao i nisi ga vidio i to se sad ne moze mijenjati).
• I would have avoided the trouble if! had known all these facts.
• Ifhe had checked up on it he would have been sure about it.
• If she had told you the truth, you would have been astonished.
• If we hadn't stopped him, he would have kept talking.
• If the doctor hadn't told him to do so, he wouldn't have given up smoking.
• Maria would have corne earlier if she had taken a taxi.
• He wouldn't have married her unless she had got (gotten) a lot of money.
• I would have been seasick ifI hadn't taken these pills.
8 If it hadn't stopped raining, it would have been impossible to come in time.
• He would have lost his books unless he had put them in this bag.
Napomena: Vezl1l'k {'{se ponekad izos{{Ivlja u pogodbenim recenicama. Ovo je namCito
sIucqj u literarnim tekstovima. Znacenje recenice se time ne m(jenja ali se
mijoy'(l '?jena struktura. Kada .'Ie t(izostavi mjesto glagola je ispred subjekta
recenice. Had we COI11(, e(lr/iel; we wOllld have had no trouble. lIad Senad
callght the ./Irst Sarajevo train, he would have arrived in time. Had she
phoned me in time, J l,vould have come to help he!: Had Maria taken a ta,-.d
.",'he would have come milch earlla Had she taken these pills, she would
have been seasick. Had she told us the truth, we would have done something
about it.
101
NEPOTPUNI GLAGOLI
Postojijedna grupa gJagoJa koji sc izuzetno cesto upotrcbljavaju i u usmcnom i u pisanom
komuniciranju. Zbog ie Cinjcnice i zbog njihovih karakteristika treba im posveCivati
veliku paznju u svim fazama nastave. Oni imuju neka obiljezja koja ih izdvajaju od svih
drugih glagoJa i mogu sc svesti pod gon\ji naslov: llepotpuni gJagoli. Nepolpuni gJagoii
obuhvataju pomocne: wj/l , .. hall yhollid would ali i tzv. defcktnc gJagoJe: call may
must nerd OIWhr to dare had beuer have rot to
Zajednicke karakteristike j pomocnih i defektnih glagola su:
1. Cijela skupina glagola trazi neku dupunu da bi imali potPUl10 znaccnje. Bez tih
dopuna oni nemaju puna znacenje OSi111 U odredcnim kontekstima koji
mijevanjem osiguravaju dopunu. pOI11Qrnj glagoli shall wi!! se dopunjuju jnfjnitiyoIU
bez "to" da bi se napravilo buduce vrijeme, should i \vOllld da bi se napravio futur drugi
i oha kondicionala.
2. Druga karakteristika cijcle skupine glago!a je einjcnica da za tvorbu upitnog i odricnog
oblika ne koristc pomotni g!agol ., do" vee se ta dva oblika tvore invcrzijom, odnosno
upotrcbom negaciie not.
3. Njihova treca zajednicka karakteristika: u trecem lieu jednine prczenta obicnog (Simple
Present Tense) ne dobijaju nastavak -5 kakav je slucaj sa ostalim giagolima.
4. Cetvrta zajednicka karakteristikaje u einjenici da se kao njihova dopuna koristi krllji
illfinitiv (infinitiv bez "to").
5. Peta znacajka ovih glagola cinjenica jc da se mogu upotrijcbiti u pasivu ali tada
imaju neSto izmijenjenu strukturu u odnosu na pasiv 5vih drugih glagola.
1z ove se skupine kao posebna grupa izdvajaju defektni gJagoli koji pored gornjih
karakteristika imaju ijos neka obiljezja svojstvena samo njima, To su g/agoli can, may
must, ought to, need, should, would, dare.
Zajednicko obiljeije svim defektnim glagolima (pored one gore pomenutih pet
karakteristika) cinjenicaje da nemain SV3 yremena koja imaju ostali gJagoli. Njihje
potrebno posebno obrazloziti.
Glago) "can"
Ovaj glagol ima odgovarajuce oblike sarno za prezent (can) i preterit (could). Druga
vremena tvore se pomocu izraza "to be able to".
J can, he can itd.Can J, can he (she)? itd.
I cannot (can't), he (she) cannot (can't) itd.
Treba uociti da se odricni obUk "cannot" uvijek pise zajedoo, nikad odvojcno, sto je
jZllzetak U odoos!I Da sye drHge g!agole.
Ovaj g!agol ima vise znacenja i stoga vise razlicitih upotreba.
1. Njime se izrazava sposobnost j fizjcka moguCnosl (nemogu¢nost) da se oeSto uradL
(znati, umjeti, biti u slanju)
· I cannot (can't) jump over that walL
• C1ill you lJill vel)' fast?
• He cannot play the violin but he can play the piano.
• She can speak English, German and French.
• We =wat (couldn't) understand the message.
• He will not be able to translate this text.
• My parents have not been able to finish the job in time.
e They could not come yesterday IDoming.
2. U govornol11jeziku se ('an i CQuld cesto upotrebljava za trazenje dozvole da se nesto
ucioi. Ooi se U ovom smislu koriste za uctivo obraeanje. Cm!ld izrazava veei stepen
uctivosti i postovanja slusalaca nego Q.illl..
3. Can i CQuid takoder se cesto preplii:u sa poljem upotrebe defektnog glagola: may.
Ovoj kategoriji upotrebe pripada i odricanje nekome da nesto ne maze (ne smije uciniti).
• You Q.iillll.Q.1 ~ whenever you want.
• C1ill I ~ your car, uncle George?
• Cilllli:!. I ~ your book, please?
• Cilll we (could we) go out now"?
4. Oblikom could cesto se iskazuje ocekivanje da ce se nesto dogoditi. U istom znacenju
maze se upotrijebiti can s tom razlikom da can Qzn[j¢:wa neStQ ye¢u vjerovatoo¢u nego
could.
~ They could come to visit liS next Saturday. (Mogli bi doCi 11 posjetu ... )
e She CQuid pass her exam next month.
• Our team could win this time.
5. Can se upotrebljava u izvjesnim frazama:
e I am as tired (Veoma sam umoran)
• This trick is as dangerous as (Krajnje opasan .. )
• I cannot but think that you should help him as much as possible. (Ne magu a
da...)
Glagoll'may"
Glagol may takoder ima samo prezent i preterit.
• I may, he may; I might, she might;
• May I? May he (she)?;
• I may not, he may not, I (he) might not itd.
Za ostala vremena koriste se izrazi: to be permitted i (iii) to be allowed.
Osnovno je znacenje glagola may: smjeti, mod, imati dopustenje.
1. Dopustenjc iii njcgovo uskracivanje:
• You may come to me any time next week.
• MiJ:h1 I = to your office on Monday?
• My friends were not allowed to go abroad.
• She was not pennitted to park her car there.
• Mm'I illu:!:illY your book?
2. Mogucnost (ocekivanje) da ce se Ilcsto ostvariti:
• Why don't you take your raincoat? It may rajn.
• He said that you might take his book.
• They asked if they might go out and play tennis.
• It lUay be true, but I have my doubts.
• He may have already arrived. (Mozdaje vee stigao ... )
3. Vjcrovainoca iIi njcno negiranje:
.. I may (might) be away from my home tomorrow.
• He may (might) not go there tomon·ow.
• They will (will not) be allowed to come.
• She hasn't been permitted (hasn't been allowed) to visit the prisoner.
4. Upotreba u ustaljenhn frazama:
• As you may (might) suppose. (kako mozete zamislitLpretpostaviti)
• Mm' you liYl; a long life. (da mi .. nam .. dugo poiivis..)
• what may (Whatever may happen) I'll do it. (Ma sta se desilo ... )
• I may(might) as well (Uostalom mogu ... , mogu isto tako ... )
• Be that as it tll.m'- (Bilo kako bilo .. )

o Whatever one might say .... (Ma sta se reklo.,.)
Glagol "must"
Glagol must ima sarno prezent. Za druga vremena koristi izraz "to have to" iIi to be
obliged to. I must, she must; must I, must he? Za negiranje koristi se oblik must not, ali
mu se tada mijenja znacenje, U negativnorn obliku on ne znaCi ne rnorati. ~
~
Za izrazavanje znacenja ne morati koristi se drugi defektni glagol "need not".
Glagolom "must" izrazava se:
1. obaveza iii savjet
• We must clean our room right now,
• You must tel1 me the whole truth.
• I had to write this report yesterday.
• You will have to go to school tomorrow.
• I have to leave you now,
• Did we have to write our English homework?
• You must listen to this musician, you will like his music,
• When you come 10 Mostar you must see the ruins of the Old Bridge.
2. vjerovatnoca:
• He!l1llilJls: in New York by now.
• This is a good car. It must cost a lot of money.
• He must have been very tired as he had worked for 16 hours without a break,
• The book is not here, Jane mllst have taken it.
o My mother isn't at home, She must have gone out
• It's late and he hasn't shown up. He must be coming tomon'ow moming.
3. zabrana:
• You mustn't go out right now, it's too dangerous.
• They llllliln:.t.= the prisoner.
• They mtlstn't park their car over there.
4. Za negativni oblik U zllacenje nc morati upotrebljava se glagol need not.
• They are very happy today, as they need not get up-early.
• They are good workers; they needn't be told what to do .
.. He needn't come again tomorrow.
• We ncecln't pay for that, as that was a gift.
• You needn't \vOlTY at all.
105
Gla.gnJi "necd" i "dlue"
Ova dva glagola mogu biti dvojako upotrijebljcna: kao defektni i kao pravilni glagol
bez modalnih obiljezcna. Need kao defektni gIago! je pamjak nasem bezlicnom glagolu
1.l:ctlli.ti a k;w pravilan gJagol on se prcvodi nasim frazama biti potreban zatrebati
Defektni gl{lgo\ need ima samo prezent i sve druge karakteristike defektnih glagola.
UpotreqIjaya;sc u potvrdnom, upitnom i U odricnom obliku. Ali U odriCnom obliku on
"..-." ; !
05110vno znacenjc i zIl3ci ne monlti. Tako rccenicu: "I-Ie need not go"
"On ne mora iei".
upotrcbljava kao samostalni (pravilni) glagol onda on ima sva obiljezja
pravfJ#Ih-'.,&lagola: dobiia nastavak -s u treeem lieu prezenta jednine (he, she needs);
tvori POlTIO¢U do iii does' odricni oblik sa do not doeWQ1; iZll njega se moze
inDo!t!v sa "to" zatim on se ITIoze upotrebljavati u preteritu (nastavak -ed);
a u upithpm obliku sa did.
obiljezja i defektnih i pravilnih glagoJa. Za razliku od "need" , "dare" ima
i svoj oblik preterita -cd nastavak.
GlagoloJ11 need izraiava se:
1. Obavcza iii njcno odsustvo:
• You do it as soon as possible.
• The students need come again.
· I needn't go to the library today.
• He Ileedn'( be paid
2. Potreba l{Oju neleo treba ispuniti:
iii
You need to do it as soon as possible.
The students need to come again.
I don't need to go to the library.
He doesn't need to be paid.
• He some more money. Why don't you give him more? (Treba mu ... )
• She is a little girL She advice. l2.Q.c.s. he my advice?
• .!2.W moncy?
• I2.Q they to get up early tomorrow?
Glagol dare izrazava izazov i poziv ili pak odsustvo toga ako je u negativuom obliku.
• he do it? !.l.a.@ to do it?
• You !.l.a.@ call him stupid? ]2Q you !.l.a.@ to call him stupid?
• I2ill:cl he to conlinue living this way'?
• J2.lli he dare to continue living this way?
.l2illLt you dare call me stupid!
• /2Qn1YOtl dare to go viyit him!
.G.l.agQli "ollght". "should" i "wQuld"
Defektni glagol ought razlikuje se ad drugih defektnih glagola po tome sto je iza njega
obavezna upotreba infinitiva sa "to". Ow,ht to "'/QuId i would imaju samo po jedan
obHk. Ought (0 i sho/!Id izrazavaju moralnu obavezu. Po tome Sll gotovo identicni, ali
glagol ol/flll to tma nesto izrazeniju moralnu obavezu.
Glagol ought to ima samo prezent a za tvorbu ostatih vremena koristi so izraz
obliged to".
• They ought to tell the truth. They hllOuld tell the truth.
• Next time you ought to be carefuL
• They ought to get lip earlier.
e He ot!!Jbt to write this report.
Next time you should be careful.
They should get lip cearlier.
He should write this report.
• They were oblijJcd to come on lime every day.
Shollld; would donekle su izgubili zncenje proslosti. U tom koristi da
izrazi sugestiju, potrebll, L1putstvo.
Glagol would izrazava:
• htijenJe, volju: I would do it with great pleasure.
• veoma uctivo obracanje nekome Would you help me, please? Would you continue
to read?
• uohicajenu ponavljanu radnju: I would often visit him when I lived in Sarajevo.
Napomena J: Glagoli should i would upotrebljavaju se da se pomocli worl [utur
drugi i oba konfiicionala ali ol1i i svoju samostaiuu upotrebu,
dakie ne kao pomoi'lli glagoli.
Napomena 2: Ako se poslUe glagola upotrebUava gIagol have + past participle
upotr{/eb(jenog glago/a onda fa kOf1strukeija iz/,azava rae/nju kOja n!je
izvr.veno II prosiosti i/ije izvr.Vel1a a Ilije se trebala izvi'Siti.
• /"m sure / could /Jot have understood it.
• They could have done it {(they had tried.
• iVa ria lllf1J!.il11irhO how.> wiysed the 6 0 'dock bus to Sarqjevo
• Why didn YOIl write the address? J dOli 't kl101l', J l1I(/ll (II/il'htl bal'<-' wrUfen it.
• They yhould have l'fyUed him, 1t :'l' pity they didn 'f do it.
• We sholl/da 't have done it.
• She should have been in time.
• We mus.t have wi'twzdet£tood the 'whole message.
• We Y//OII/dn 'f have (/one stich a bad thing.
• She ollght (0 have writl£ll her homework.
• I aug/an ( to have readyollr secret message.
• A1yfather alight to havg bough! the new em; but he had no money.
107
G They nr:edn L have vone to all that trouble.
• y()U lIecdn [ have been so scared.
"Causativni" glagoli: make, have, get
Ova tri glago!a l110gu se upotrijebiti da oznace kako je lice A. navelo lice B. da nesto
uradi za lice A. Drugim rijecima neko vrS1 (obavlja) radnju rccenice po zelji i zahtjevll
subjckta reccnice. Kad su ova tri glagola upotrijcbljcna u poscbnom, "kauzativnom"
smislu njihova su znacellja sticna ali ne idenliCna. U rccenici "I made my sister write
the homework" znaccnje jc da samje prisilio i da u 10m ona nije imala izbora. U rccenici
""I had my sister write the homework" znacenje je: ona je to uradila jer sam ja trazio,
nije morala, ali je uradila da ispuni moje insistirartic. U recenici "I got my sister ~
the homework." porllka je da samje uvjerio (ubijedio) kako treba napisati svoju zadacu.
Glagol "get" II ovakvoj upotrebi slijedi infinitiv sa "to" a druga dva glagola slijede
infinitivi bez "to"
U gornjim primjerima upotrijebljena je struktura: Past Tense + objekt + infinitiv bez
~
Primjeri:
· I made my sister write the homework i
• I had my sister write her homework. - ~ potvrduju gornju konstataciju.
Medutim, postoji i "kauzativna" struktura koja sc gradi taka da iza glagola: have i get
slijedi objekat i particia perfekta giago/a koga felllllG lIDotrijebiti. Neki od sljedeCih
primjera ce to potvrditi.
• Two weeks ago she hilll a new dress ~
• I:-I.aY.s,: you had your dictation corrected?
• We hili! our sink l'ilwi.
• John .b.ad....some morc coffee,.b.rQ.y.ght to our room.
Konstrukcija sa pal'ticipom perfekta ima pasivIlo zIlacenje (get bez"to"):
· I got (had) my alarm clock repaired.
• She had (got) her bike l'ilwi.
lOP
QUESTION TAGS
Nasa upitna [raza "Zur ne?" razlicito se prevodi l1a engleski jezik, Najmanje tridesetak
(pa i vise) razlicitih cngleskih ekvivalenata odgovara nasem izrazu "zar ne'?" To nasim
studcntima moze ciniti odrectene poteskoce. Citanjem recenica koje slijede shvatit ce
se da se svaka od navcdenih engJeskih upitnih fraza prevodi sa nasim jednim
izrazom "zar ne".
Ta nas Cinjcnica ocito, uvijek stavlja prcd tcZak izbor: Icoji ad moostva 11)o!J11¢ih
izraza "zar ne')" treba upotrijebitj u datom kQntekstu? ler, tridesetak iii viSe mogucnosti
u engleskom jeziku stoje naspram nase jednc mogucnosti, koja se to je jasno - ne
moze upotrebljavati arbitral11o. Prevod naseg izraza "zar ne?" ua englesld jezik mora
slijediti neka pravila koja odreduju kada se neki od mnostva engleskih mogucnosti moze
upotrijebiti.
Opee pravilo koje ce nam pomoci da svaki put ispravno prevedemo ovu nasu frazu na
engJeski jezik gIasi:
• Prvo treba utvrditi u kojem je vremenll prethodna recenica za koju treba postaviti
pitanje "zar ne?" Nakon toga za iZl"az "zal' ne?" koristimo pomocni glagol u istom
tom vremenu II kome je upotrijcbljen 1I prvom dijelu rccenice.
• Pomocni glagol mora biti u suprotnom obliku U odnosu na recenicu koja prethodi
[razl "zar neT'. Ako je pomocni glagol u odricnom. engleski ckvivalent za "zar
ne?" mora biti u potvrdnolTI obliku a ako je pomocni glagol prethodne recenice u
potyrdnom. ekvivalent za "2ar ne" mora bitt U odricnoITl obliku
• Ako je u prethodnoj recenici JJ.I2Qtrijebljen modalni (a ne pomocni) glagoJ, onda se
on uPQtriiebi u upitnoj fraz; umiesto pomoenog glagQla. Pri tome se, kao i kod
pomoenih glagola u frazi "zar ne?" modalni glagol L1vijek koristi u suprotnom
obliku u odnosu na prethodnu reccniclI.
• This is a young man over there, isn't it?( pri g\edanju fotografije).
• They visited the U,S.A last year, didn't lhey'!
• He can speak English, can't he?
• He isn't your brother, is he?
• They can understand normal English conversation, can't they?
.. You are writing a letter, aren't you?
.. You know my friend Bill, you?
• He doesn't work on Sunday, does he?
• She helps you very often, doesn't she'!
• You didn't write your homework, did you?
109
o They don't get up very early, do they,!
.. He has read this book, hasn't he?
• They have been at the seaside, haven't they?
• I am the first to come, the last to leave, am I not'!
e Mary is busy and she can't help you right now, call shc?
• They will not work tomorrow, will they?
.. He will visit us on Sunday, wou't he?
.. We shall call him tomorrow, shan't we?
.. We shall not cal! him tomorrow, shall we'!
• Maria was sick yesterday, wasn't she?
.. You have asked him this question, haycn't you?
• She hasn't asked his father about it, has she?
• They would like to go witb us, wouldn't they?
.. He wouldn't help you, would he?
.. The boy has gone to bed, hasn't he?
• The boy hasn't gone to bed yet, h ~ l S he?
.. You are not allergic to penicillin, are you?
• He had come before we met him, hadn't he'!
• They badn't arrived befo.re we came to the airport, had they?
• We should help him today, shouldn't we?
n lMENICE
Gramatika engleskog jezika
Jmenice su vrsta rijeci koje u rccenici imaju znacajnu funkciju. One rnogu biti
upotrijebljene kao subjekt (vrsilac radnje), kao objekat iii pr:epozicionalni objekat.
Izuzetno ya'l;oa karakterlli,tika engJes1(Qg jezika UQkazuje se II Cinienjci da veliki hrQi
jmenjca mogu biti upotrijebJjrni i kao pridjevi. lcdnostavno imenica se upotrijebi ispred
druge irnenice pa ona prva preuzirna ulogu pridjeva: copy book copper wire. mtlill
llJ2ring. QlIlcrete bridgL hand pump lYillillllhL lilllJmage textbook. ,offee break. illlli1
~ power plant air ~ pipe radius itd.
Sve imenice mozemo podijeliti na pet kategorija.:.
1. Vlastite imenice (proper names) pokazuju vlastita imena Ijudi, gradova,
institucija. Nazivi mjeseci j dana u sedmici se tretiraju kao vlastite imenice:
Peter, Maria, Mirsad, October, Sunday, Sarajevo, New York itd.
2. Opee imenice (common nouns) oznacavaju nazive lica, mjesta,
zivotinja, stvari, : woman ,man, boy, girl, table, lion, street, town, window,
horse, lake, river, head, face, leg itd.
3. Zbirne imenice (collective nouns) oznacavaju skup iIi mnostvo ljudi, stvari
koji se tretiraju kao jedna skupina: army, crowd, family, team, police, herd,
cattle, class,jury, government, council, committee, public, team, staff, crew itd.
4. Gradivne imenice (material nouns) oznacavaju materiju. One su uglavnom
nebrojive imenice i nemaju mnozinu: milk, water, tea, sand, coffee, air, cheese,
ice cream, butter itd,
S. Apstraldne imenice (abstract nouns) oznacavaju svojstva, stanje, osjecanja,
kakvocu: beauty, ugliness, courage, question, answer, traffic, behavior, illness,
health, respect, disrespect, honesty itd.
Syojstva imenica
Imenice posjeduju tri karakteristicna svojstva (obiljezje): rod, broj i padel.
Rod: mllski, zenski iii srednji. Po ovom svojstvu englcske imenice razlikuju se od nasih.
Stvari u nasemjcziku imaju gramaticki rod, tj.jedan od tri roda (taj stol, ovaj izlog, onaj
prozoI', ta stolica, ova knjiga, ona sob a, to sed 1o, ovo pero itd.), dok su u engleskom
stvari (sa malim brojem izuzetaka) srednjeg roda.
Broj oznacavajedninu ili mnozinu imenica: book _. books, man -men, woman - women,
boy - boys, friend - friends itd.
113
Padei oznacava ocInos il11enice u recenici prema njenil11 drugim rijcCima. U nasem
jeziku funkcUa imcnice u recenici ocIreduje njene oblike, lljcne padez.ne nastavke. U
engleskomjcziku ne postoje paddni nastavci vcc Sll funkcija i padez odredeni mjestom
u recenici, ili nckil11 ad prijedloga (to, of itd.), odnosno apostrofom - s.
Subjekt: This man is VCty handsome. His sister is beautiful,
Objekt: Do you see that liliLfl over there? Give this book tQ his sister.
Rod imcnica
Rod imenica u engleskom se raziikuje od roda u nasem jeziku. Mi imamo tzv.
gral11aticki rod koji ne postoji u engleskom. Iz toga proizlaze mnogc posljedice koje se
moraju imati na umu pri prevoc!cnju sajednogjezika na drugi. To je naroeito vazno kad
upatrebljavama zamjenice u jednini (he, she, it). Posta su rodovi uglavnol11 razliCiti to
ce i odgovarajuce zamjenice u jednini biti razlieite. Imenice i liene zamjenice imaju
obiljezja kojima pokazuju rod pa to treba imati u vicIu pri prevoc!enju.
1. U pdncipu engleski rod slUedi prirodnu odrednicu da su sva ziva bica ili zenskog ili
muskog rada: zene, djevojke, odnosno zenke u zivotinjskom svijetu su zenskog rada,
muskarci, djecaci i l11uzjaci u zivotinjskom svijetu su l11uskog roda. Mala djeca, insekti
i ptice, mladunead zivotinja i stvari (sa malim brojem izuzetaka) imaju srednji rod.
• A ill.illl is coming. lk..is young. I have a new b.Q.Qk.
• A hlrd is flying. A girl is sitting. ~ is reading.
• 11 is velY interesting. 11 is cute. 1:k was a servant.
o A child is clying. II is ilL ~ was a servant, too.
2. Ako su zivotinje a kojima se govori veee iii snaznije, anda one cesto im<\ju muski, a
ako su manje i njeznije zenski rod.
There is a big llilg. lk is dangcl"Ous. This £ill is smalL ~ is nice.
3. Opec imcnicc kojc oznacavaju zanimanjc Sll u cnglcskomjeziku ili muskog iii zcnskog
roda bez ikakvih promjena u obliku imenica, bez nastavaka iii drugih oznaka kojc bi
pokazivale rod.
o Our teacher is very honest. She (hel is also very kind.
• The doctor doesn't work today. I::ki.sl:lg) is on vacation.
• This parent works hard evelY day. So she (he) supports her (his) whole family.
o My friend helps me a lot. I::ki.sl:lg) is always ready to help me.
Napomcna: imenica SUllce {[he su/1)moie da bude mu§kog a imenice zemlja (the earth)
i 111jesec {(be 11100n) SLl tl poeziji ienskog roda. imcnice brad (the ship) i
parobrod (the yteamer) kola ([he car) voz (the train) i avion (the aiteral]),
narocito aka se pomiJ?iu iz milja, SlI cesto icnskog roda.
4. Od imenica muskog grade se imenice zenskog roda nastavkom - ess. Pri tome
imenice na: - e, - er iii - or g,ube vokale -c, odnosno -0 kada se doda nastavak - ess.
prince
tiger
poet
pnncess
tigress
poetess
actor
emperor
lion
actress
empress
lioness
waiter waitress;
host hostess
5. izvjestan broj imenica iii dobiju drllge nastavke za oznakll zenskog roda ilijos uz to
dozive izvjesne formalne promjene u samoj imenici.
master mistress duke duchess
negro negress
hero heroine
Rijeci: Negro - Negress imaju danas pogrdno iii staromodno znacenje i ne
upotrebljavaju se osirn 1I slucajevirna kada se zeli nagiasiti ta pogrdnost. Danas se umjesto
njih upotrebIjavaju black man (woman) a u mnazini se upotrebljava poimeniceni
pridjev: blacks iIi African Americans, jer se time izbjegava njihova pezorativno
znacenje.
6. lsprcd nckih imenica kod kojih rod nije naznacen koristi se jedna od rijeCi kod
kojih je rod jasno naznacen. Time se odreduje rod upotrijebljene imenice.
Qm:friend girlfriend ITlill1 servant woman servant
ill: goat (jarac) :;ill: goat (koza) =-cat (macak) she cat (macka)
he-bear(medvjed) she bear father bear mother bear
male elephant female elephant
7. Iza neldh imenica dodaje se rijec koja pokazlIje rod upotrijebljenc imenice.
turkey cock ( puran) turkey hen (puranica)
peacock (paun) peahen (pallnica)
Singular i plural imenica
Obieno vlada uvjerenjc da je Ll engles-korn jcziku veoma lahko napraviti jedninu od
mnozinc imcnica. To jc tacno, jer najveCi broj imenica tvore mnozinu ad jednine
dodavanjem nastavka - s iii - es na jedninu. (Taj nastavak - s, - es se izgovara iii kao
nase - s, odnosno nase-- z iii - iz. Pravila za izgovor su is·ta kao pravila za izgovor treceg
liea jednine U obicnom prezentu).
Moramo, ipak, znati cia od opceg pravHa 0 tvorbi mnozine imenica dodavanjem nastavka
- s, iii - es ima puno izuzetaka. Te izuzetke treba pamtiti kako bi se mogli pravilno
upotrijebiti u neposrednom sluzenju cngleskim jezikolTI.
115
1. Ako se imenica ujednini zavrsava na wy kome prethodi suglasnik taj -y mijellja se u
i pa sc ollda dodaje nastavak -es. Medutim, ako tome - y prethodi neki samoglasnik
onda takvih promjena nema.
stOlY ~
country
fly
countries
~
reply
city
family
2. a) Kod IIckih imcnic'l koje se u jcdnini zavrsavaju na wf
odnosno -fc u -v a onda se dodaje nastavak - es.
life liYl& leaf kll= half
loaf loaves self ~ wolf
calf !.illl= knife ~ wife
shelf ~ thief ~
ali way
boy
day
iii na - fc mijcllja sc-f
b) Mcdutim, postoji veliki broj imenica lwje sc zavrsavaju ua -f, a ipak prave
mlloiinu samo dodavanjcm nastavka -so
cliff £liffo. chief roof
proof IlI-QQ.fu belief
c) Postoji odrcdcn broj imcnica
staff (osoblje, palica)
na -f koje imaju dvostruke nastavkc:
ililJ'f> staves
3. a)
scarf (sal)
hoof (kopito)
wharf (kej)
-=fu
..h.QQ.fu
~
Imenice na -0 ispred koga se nalazi suglasnik
koji se izgovara kao nase z:
tomato tQ.!lli!.lQ!& potato
echo ~ volcano
potatoes
yolcauoes
wharves
prave mnozinu nastavkom -es
hero hrull.t;
Negro N ~
b) Imenicam3 na -0 kome prethodi vokal dodaje se nastavak -s:
studio s1l!d.i.us. scenario scenarios folio fuliQ.s.
radio radios video vid.e..o.£ zoo z.Q.QS.
c) lzvjc!itan broj imcnica na -0 kojima prethodi suglasnik, ipak u
mnoZilli dobiju sarno -s:
solo ~ kilo \5.iJ.Qs. photo phQ.tQ.s,
plano auto
4. Vise imenica irnaju isti obJik u jednini i rnnozini. Glagol upotrijebljen sa ovim
imenicama moze biti u jednini iii u mnozini zavisno ad toga da Ii se misli na jedninu iIi
na mnozinu, bez obzira !ito su oblici identicnL
deer UelenNi) cross-roads (raskrsnica-e)
sheep (ovca -e) means (sredstvo-a)
species (vrsta-e) swine (svinja-e)
series (niz, serija)
fish (riba-e)
gas-works (plinara-e)
• Can you see iLdru over there?
• This cross-roads is. dangerous.
• Tbat sheep is old.
• There is. no means to do it.
• This animal in danger.
5. Imenice sa nepraviJnorn mnozinom
There are a lot of deer in our forests.
All cross-roads are dangerous.
Many sbeep in tbis herd an: old.
There are no means to do it.
These animal species are in danger.
Postoji i nevelik broj imenica koje ne grade mnozinu dodavanjem nastavka -s vee ili
dodavanjem nekog drugog nastavka nekarakteristicnog za engleski jezik, iIi promjenom
osnovnog vokala jednine iIi kombinacijama tih obiljezja.
man
child
mouse
=
children
lllke
woman
tooth
goose
6. Imenice koje se upotrebJjavaju sarno u mnozini
foot
ox
a) Nekoliko naziva halatki, odjevnih predmeta, instrumenata koje se sastoje od dva
jednaka dijela upotrebljavaju se iskljucivo u mnozini, pa je glagol sa kojim se one
upotrebljavaju llvijek u mnozini.
shorts (kratke pantalone) trousers (pantalone)
scissors (makaze) spectacles (naocale)
scales (terazije, vaga)
pyjamas (pidzama)
eye-glasses (naocale) glasses (nnocale) a pair of compasses (sestar)
• His spectacles an: old-fashioned.
• These scissors m very sharp.
My trousers m too short.
His pyjamas
b) Ovoj kategoriji pripadaju i irnenice koje ne spadaju U odjevne predmele, u instrurnente
iii uredaje i nernaju dva jednaka dijeia, a ipak imaju sarno oblik mnozine.
headquarters (stab) thanks (zahvalnost) premises (prostorije)
wages (nadnica) goods (roba) arms (oruzje)
.. Their headquarters outside our town.
• His wages m very smalL
• Some of his goods been stolen.
117
7. Oblik mnozille a znacenje jednine
Slijedeca skupina imenica ima oblik i nastavak finozine) ali upotrebijavaju se samo u
jednini. Giagol koji se sa njima upotrebljava je uvijek u jednini.
statistics (statistika)
phonetics (fonetika)
physics (fizika)
news (vijest)
• Mathematics ill an interesting subject.
• Phonetics ~ with sounds.
• Statistics hclp,s. us to find many solutions.
• This news is. important to me.
• Physics Yi.ll.S. his favorite subject.
8. Nebrojive imenice
mathematics (matematika)
Poveliki broj irnenica Cine skupinu koje se zovu nebrojive. To su uglavnom gradivne i
apstraktne imenice. Za njih je karakteristicno da nemaju mnozinu) da se s njima ne
upotrebljava ni neodreaeni ni odredeni 61an, a upotrijebljeni glagol je uvijek u jednini.
Ispred ovih imenica kol'iste se odrednicc I111!£h.. ~ a little too much. too little nJill;
ill.. plenty of ks.s... so much that hardly any. pitanje how much'? za razliku od brojivih
imenica koje imaju mnozinu a ispred kojih se koriste odrednice: many a few few. 100
many. fewer so many that ,1 couple of both several no a great deal of i pitanje how
IllillliL
bread
lettuce
money
honesty
shampoo
meat
salt
jewelry
mail
space
weather
light
butter
milk
rice
flour
toothpaste
pepper
homework
baggage
steam
energy
heat
darkness
• We eat vety little bread.
• Milk.i:i healthy to drink.
• Honesty is very important in my life.
• How much toothpaste do we have?
e Courage is desirable.
• Pepper is not very healthy.
• He got less money this month.
cheese
courage
equipment
coffee
laundry
noise
soap
machinelY
oxygen
grammar
humidity
sunshine
happiness love
ice cream work
courage health
WlIle sugar
detergent paper
money time
waleI' air
makeup traffic
smoke smog
vocabulaty chess
electricity sow
fire fish
• We have too little equipment.
.. How much wine do you usually drink?
.. Cheese is. something I like .
.. This detergent is. very good.
e He drinks ks.s \vater than beer .
• paper do you need?
.. The ice cream I ate yesterday bad.
9. a) Mnozina slozcnica
SJozenice u engleskom jeziku su vrlo 6este naro6ito u tekstovima i raspravama koje se
odnose na tehniku, tehnoloske procese, oglase, razne grane nauke, naslove u novinama
j slicno. Njima se postize bolja konciznost, jezgrovito, kratko saopstavanje bitnih
informacija i preciznija pojmovna definisanost rije6i.
Slozenice je veoma tesko precizno prevoditi sa engleskog na nas jezik .U nacelu
najvaznija rijec !l s]ozenici je posljednja a sve druge sluze kao odrednice posljednje
rijeci, kao njeni atributi, opisi. Drugim rijecima, rijeci ispred glavnog pojma imaju
funi{ciju pridjeva i ta cinjcnica odreduje formalna obiljez.ja mnozine. Posto pridjevi
nemaju nastavke ni oblike koji bi pokazivali mnozinu to u slozenici sarno glavna djee (a
najcesce je to posljednja rijeC) dobija nastavke za mnozinu.
Pri prevodenju slozenica najcesce (ne uvijek) pocinje se prevod posljednje rijeci, glavnog
pojma, pa tek onda njene odrednice iduci lInatrag prema prvoj rijeci. Primjeri ce pokazati
takav prevod slozenica: melting temperature (temperatura topljenja), shoe department
(odjel za prodaju cipela), desk drawer (Iadica stoIa), fire insurance company (firma za
osiguranje od pozara), cigar -shaped tube (cijev u obliku cigare). Medutim, eesto nije
moguc ovakav pristup prevodenju, pa treba prona!aziti druge nacine: kao opis, definisanje
i sl.
lzvjestan broj slozenica pisli se zajedno i njihova mnozina grad} se nastavcima:
an armchair - illJUcl:Hllrs.; a notebook - Dotebooks; a bookshelf -bookshelves itd
U ovim primjerima vidjet ce se gradenje mnozine kod slozenica, bez obzira da Ii su ona
sastavljene iz jedne iii 1Z vise rijeer.
language textbook language textbooks
mathematics problem mathematics probJems
can opener
coffee cup
low-carbon steel
metal spring
concrete bridge
aluminium alloy
production system
sister-in-law
editor-in-chief
can openers
'coffee cups
low-carbon steels
metal springs
concrete bridges
ailiminium allQYS
PIQduction systems
sisters-in-law
editors-in-chief
desk drawer
table top
shoe store
deck-chair
copper wire
water tube
hand pump
power plant
passer-by
writing table
desk drawers
table tops
shoe stores

copperwires
water tubes
hand pumps
powerpiants
passers -by
writing tables
119
I
b) Kod sloienica ciji je prvi dio man iii woman oba dijeIa sloienice primaju svoja
karakteristicn3 obiljeija za mnozinu.
woman joumalist women journalists
woman doctor women doctors
woman teacher
woman driver
women teachers
women drivers
man friend
man-servant
man driver
men friends
men-servanls
men drivers
c) Sloienice sa zavrSetkom Ita -man u nmoiini imaju nastavak - men.
policeman policemen doorman doormen
postman snowman snowmen
Ovoj kategoriji pripadaiu i imcna Ijudi i zena koja oznacavaju pripadanje nekolll llill:lli1.u...
Frenchman
Englishman
Frenchwoman
Swedish WOlllan
Frenchmen
Englishmen
Frenchwomen
Swedish women
Izuzetak od gornjeg pravila
German - Germans
9. Siozenice bez ijedne imenice
gentleman
Englishwoman
Belgian woman
Roman - Romans
gentlemen
Englishwomen
Belgian women
Postoji odreden broj slozenica koje u sebi ne sadrze nijednu imenicu, a grade mnozinu
tako da se posljednjoj rijeci u nizu doda nastavak - 5.
get-up merry-go-round
grown-up grown-ups good-far-nothing
. meny-go-rounds

go-betweens look-out look-outs go-between
push-up sit-up
10. Imenice za pripadnike naroda na - ss iii se
Imenicama na - 5S iIi -se koje oznaeavaju pripadnost odredenom narodu ne dodaje se
nikakav nastavak u mnozini.
a Swiss many Swiss
a Chinese five Chinese
11. Imenice str.nog porijekl.
a Portuguese
a Japanese
two POItuguese
ten Japanese
Veliki broi posI!denica (imenica stranog porjjekJa) zadrzava nastavke mnoZine koje SU
imali u izvornom jeziku Ove posudenice nisu sasvim eeste u ohienoj, svakodnevnoj
komunikaciji ali u stmcnim raspravama Hi analizama koriste se prilicno cesto.
axis
=
basis

analysis analyses
crisis illill.
medium
llllilill
phenomenon
radius radii thesis
oasIs
=
120
datum ®tJ!
antenna antennae
formula formulae
criterion criteria
prognosis
cun'iculum
Nastavak -es u mnozini garnjih imenica se cita kao nase dugo i:z
12. a) Imeniee sa dvostrukom mnozinom i razlikom u znacenju
!ll1lll1lillies
curricula
Kod izvjesnog broja imenica znacenje u mnozini maze biti isto kao u jednini ali moZe
hiti i razliCili1.
custom (abicaj)
force (sila)
quatler (cetvl1ina)
spirit (duh)
iron (gvoide, pegla)
spectacle (prizor)
customs (obicaji, ('arinarnica)
forces (sile, QIliZane
quarters (cetvrtine, Stab)
spirits (duhovi, :lestoka pjca,)
irons (pegle, QkQyjj
spectacles (prizori, Illliltlll:.)
b) Promjena namece promjenu znuccllja U odnosu na jedninu
Neveliki braj imenica mijenjaju znacenje 1I odnosu 11a znacenje jednine kada su
upotrijebljene u mooZini.
cloth (stof, ) clothes
good (korist) goods (rilllil)
manner (oacin) manners (man ire ponasanje)
people (narod) peoples (ljudi, svije!)
a people ( narod) people ( ljudi,svijet) peoples ( narodi)
Padezi imenica
Padeii u nasem jeziku imaju izrazito veliki broj nastavaka u ovisnosti od roda, broja i
vrste irnenice. Padeini s1st-em u engJeskomjeziku krajnjejejednostavan. Zapravo, sarno
genitiv ima neka ohiljezja koja ga po formi razlikuju od drugih padeza. Svi drugi padezi
istj su po obliku, ali po funkc\ji raz1i6iti. Umjesto nastavaka za razli6ite imenice, rod i
broj u engleskomjeziku upotrebljavaju se priiedlozi koii odreduju odnos imenice prema
drugim rijeCima u reCenici. Tako se dativ determinira upotrebom prijedloga: m...lill:..
lYilh.
Nominatlv i akuzatiy po oblikn su Isti ali njihova ;e funkcija, odredena mjestom j
1im.k£ijom u reCenici Nominatlv je na prvoj pozjciii \I reCenic! j prethodi glago\u. dok
iza akuzativa slijedi glagoL Taka: A QQ/iceman Idlled an ;,,(ruder znaCi (palicniac je
ubio provalnjka) dok te iste rijeCi poredane druga¢ije POtpu110 mjjenjaju znaCenje' An
intruder killed a Doficemall (prova[njk ie uhio DoUeqica )
121
Saksonsl{i (posesivnil genitiv
Postoje elva razliCita oblika za genitiv. ledna mogucnostza gradnju genitivaje dodavanje
jednini imenice apostrof + s. A(v SOli \' car her daughter\' hook hjs (£-tlher'S' g/ques
tbe student:5 notebook. the doctor 'y wife" Bosllia S heroe ..
1. Ovaj oblik genitiva se upotrebljava sa imcnicama u jednini j u mnozini koje oznacavaju
ziva biea: Maria '5 brother John's grandmother 5 glaues. the /ion:S' ybw:
a) U mnozini se imenici dodaje nastavak ako se mnozina
imenice zavrsava na Parents' car, teachers' chairs, my friends' books, the girls'
scarves, students' exams, workers' rights, her sisters' pet, my brothers' friends, parrots'
voice.
b) Imenice sa nepravilnom I11nozinol11 dobiju apostrof+ s na vee upotrijebljcnu
ncpravilnu 1111102inu: children's playground, women's rights, men's gloves, gentlemen's
shirts, postmen's duties, policemen's uniforms, doormen's telephones, snowmen's
hats, Frenchmen's men's taste, women's intuition, children's age.
2. Gcnitiv sa apostrofom + s se upotrebljava ne samo za ziva biea nego i za naznaku
mjere, vrcmenskih pojmova, mjera i mjernih vrijednosti: a week's work, a night's
shift, an hour's walk, a day's journey, a mile's distance, twenty dollar's worth,
tomorrow's Oslobodenje, ten minutes' conversation, a month's lay ofT.
3. KOllstrukcija apostrof + s se upotrebljava sa sljedeeim imenicama: the sun's rays,
the earth's surface, the moon's surface, Nature's deed, Nature's good,ali Declaration of
Independence.
4. Konstrukcije apostrof + s se upotrebljava sa nekim z3mjcnicHma, naroeito u nekim
ustaljenim izrazima: to do one's duty, to take somebody else's things, somebody's
responsibility, to hear anybody's opinion, everybody's right, everybody's job.
S. Ako se g0l11ja konstrukcija odnosi na dva iii vise lica onda se apostrof + s dodaje
posl.jednjoj imenici: Mary, Ann and Maria's cat, Fred and Frank's parents, Peter and
Jane.'s ap31iment is on the first noor.
Gellitiv u - of obliku
Kao sto je za biea preovladujuCi genitivni oblik apostrof+s tako je za stvari preovladujuci
genitivl1i oblik sa of + imenicH. Genitiv of lwnstrukcije ima viSe upotreba, Pored
najcesce upotrebe za stvari ova konstrukcija upotrebljava se .los:
122
1. ispred poirnenicenih pridjeva:
e the problems of the young,
• the courage of the brave,
• the honesty of the young,
• the misery of the wounded.
2. ispred rijeci month i sa geografsldm imenima:
• the first of April,
• the tenth of October,
• the twenty first of December,
• the month of January,
vthe City ofMostar.
3. sa imcnicama iivih bien knda im prethodi ncodredeni clan, glavni broj, ili neka od
pokaznih zarnjenica i prisvojnih pridjeva kada se zeli narocito izraziti odredeno lice
kad irna vise pomenutih liea, stvari itd. U takvim okolnostima mogu se upotrijebiti
oba genitivna oblika: i of oblik i apostrof:rs.
• a friend of my brother's (friends),
• a school friend of my sister's,
• that is a tie afmy father's (tics),
• this is a purse army mother's (purses),
• That was a promise of the President's,
• He took three of his brother's toys,
• A question of the journalist's (one of many),
• That was one mistake of the student's (mistakes),
• One suggestion of my student's was very useful.
123
III CLANOVI
Gmmatika engleskog jezika
Najfrekventnije rijeti u engleskomjeziku su clanovi. Gotovo da nema slozenih
recenica u kojima nije upotrijebljenjedan od clanova. To je dovoljan raziog da se upotrebi
odredenog i neodredenog clana posveeuje puna paznja na gotovo svim nivoima nastave
engleskog jezika.
Neodredeni clan ima dva oblika: a ian. Odredeni clan ima samo jedan obIik i zajedninu
i za mnozinu: the. Odredeni i neodredeni clan ne pokazuju rod, broj ni padez imenice
ispred koje stoje: oni same pokazuju da lije odgovarajtlea imenica vee ranije pomenuta,
da Ii govornik i slusalac (eitaIac) l! datom kontekstu spomenutu rijee
vee definisanom, ranije pomenutom iIi ne.
U tOI11 pogledu, postoje znatne razlike od naseg jezika, jer nase odgovarajuce rijeei:
jedan,jcdna,jedno,jednoj,jednom itd, odnosno: taj, ta, to, ovaj, ova, ovo, ovima, ovom,
onoj itd. svojim nastavcima pokazuju rod broj i padez imenice ispred koje se upotrijebe,
Treba napomcnuti da se u pravilu ni ni neQdredeni Clan ne prevode na naS
jezik, jer mi i uemamo provu zamjenu za njjh.
Upotreba neodredenog clana
Po svom porijeklu neodredeni clanje broj ali to znacenje gubi u mnogim okolnostima u
kojima se upotrebljava, iako ponekad i sada ima znacenje: jedanjedna,jedno itd. Oblik
a se upotrebljava ispred imenica koje pocinju sugJasnikom iii ispred imenica koje se
pisu pocetnim suglasnikom ali izgovaraju se pocetnim samoglasnikom. Tako se izgovara
i pise a university, a useful suggestion fl uniform>-. lako se ove rijeci piSu pocetnim
samoglasnikom. Oblik an se kazuje i piSe ispred rijeci koje se izgovaraju sa pocetnim
samoglasnikom: .arLQld man an evening flO orange an egg an aunt itd, ali an honest
man, an hour. Navedeni primjcri potvrduju da kriterij za upotrebu a iIi an nije kako se
neka rijet pise vee kako se onn izgovara: ( a.J1.!.J.iJ!£.rsitv, ali an umbrella, an armchair
a house a hem ali-.C1!1 hone'i! mall all hOllr)
Neodredeni clan sc upotrebljava:
1. isprcd brojivih imenica u jednini kada se pominju prvi put:
• Would you like fLQlUl of coffee? Do you have a book?
• There is a student waiting for you. Is he man?
• Is Mr. Smith a good teacher? She is an English teacher.
• I have a pencil sharpener. There is fl...Qlli: over there.
127
2. ispred zajednickih imcnica upotrijcbljcnih u jednini ako prcdstavtjajll
cijelu vrstu. Uz ove imcniee upotrijebljenc da predstavJjaju eijeiu vrstu mozc se
upotrijebiti i odrcdeni ChHl.
• A.£ill:. is a very nice animal. A1LQX is ill1 animal.
• AJlQg is very faithful. A nightjngale can sing beautifully,
U gornjim primjerima svaka imenica predstavija cijelu svoju vrstu. lmenice "a cat", "a
dog" "an ox" "a nightingale" ne prcdstavljaju jcdnu pojcdinacnu machi, pojcdinacnog
psa, vola iii stavuja, ncgo svoju vrstu,
Izuzetak: Kad se upotrebljavaju rijeci man j woman u okolnostima kad oznacava Ijudski
rod - dakle kad predstavlja cijeiu vrstu - De npotrcbUava se ni odredeni ni ncodredeni
clan,
• Mill! is often cruel.
• \iVoman is often more diligent than man,
3. isprcd imcllica u jcdllilli upotrijebljenih predikativno kao dio predikata uz giagol
"to be", "to become" itd, Ovoj kategoriji pripadaju takoder imenice koje oznacavaju
pripadnost jednom narodt! a odnose se na jedno lice:
• She wants to be a student He used to be a sailor.
• He became ~ officer. She is an intelligent girL
• There is a book under that table, She became n...gQQ.d girL
• He is a Bosnian, She is.Jm Austrian
• Mrs, Paganini is an Italian, Is she ~ ?
• He is (has become) !'Ulil.ill. She is (has become) an architect.
4. isprcd brojnih izraza kao sto su: a dozen half a dozen a thousand a hundred. a
mi.llim1.. umjesto broja jedan.
• I want lLilll= eggs, please.
• He won a million euros,
• My mother spent a thousand dollars today.
• She bought haIfa dozen ski liS.
5. uz razlomke: a fourth, a half, a sixth, a third itd:
• Everybody had ll..fiilh of the whole. We paid i!..lhi.!:d of the price.
• A sixth of his property was sold. Everybody gets a tenth.
6. ispred prezimena liea u znacenju neki izvjesni'
A Mrs, Turkovic, a Mr. Marinkovic, a Miss Sadikovi6, a Ms, Todorovic.
7. ispred izraza koji oznacavaju eijenu iIi vremensko odredenje, narocito ako mu
prethodi rijec once:
" Once a year, once a week, three times a year, twice a week, in a week, in a
month, once a month, twice a day
" These apples cost 80 cents a pound.
• I Ie earns a hundred dollars a day.
• His salary is 1400 dollars a month.
• They'll come back in a week.
• He buys such shirts four times a year.
• They go to college six times a month.
• He drinks beer twice a day.
" She will graduate in a year.
8.11 izrazirna: for a change, to be at a loss, to be in a hurry, a few, a little, a great deal
of: a lot of, it's a pity, ali ofa sudden, ill a shalt time, to give a guess, quite a bit, to have
a look, a wink, to make a mess, to take a seat, as a matter offact, a matter of taste, a great
deal of, a lot of.
• She has taken quite a bit of this bread.
" They had a look around the house.
• She couldn't sleep a wink.
" He made a mess in the kitchen.
• Take a seat, please.
" As a matter of fact, he didn't cal! us.
• This is just a matter of taste.
• This is really a matter of taste.
• Can you give a guess what happened?
9. u usklicnirn recenicarna:
What a great surprise!
What a wonderful idea!
What a an interesting girl!
What an exciting story!
10. iza rijeci such, half, quite i izraza many a: (u znacel1ju mnogi od):
• One should never do such a telTible thing.
• He is such a selfish person.
• Azra is quite an honest girl.
• Come in hal r an hour, please.
• Many a player was quite satisfied.
• Such a man is very irresponsible.
• He bought only half a pound of meat.
Napomena: Neodrer1eni Clan a / an ne mora se lIvUek lIpotrUehiti neposredno ispred
imenice. Imenici maze prethaditi pridjev, i 11 tOI1l s/licaju se neodrecteni
Clan upotrebljava ispred pridjeva: a good student, an excellent lvoman, an
intelligent teache!; an interesting stOlY, (J usejid suggestion.
129
Izostavljanjc Ilcodre<1cnog CIana
Postoje brojne okolnosti u kojima se neodredeni Clan ne moze upotrijebiti.
1. Posta je neodrcc1eni clan po svojoj sustini broj i znaci:jedan,jedna,jedno, ne moze
se upotrijcbiti ispred imenica u mnozini. Umjesto ncodrcdenog clana se u mnozini
moze upotrijebiti ili rijec some (u potvrdnim recenicama) iii any (u odricnim i upitnim
recenicamu).
2. Neodredeni clan ne upotrebljava se ispred gradivnih i apstraktnih (ncbrojivih) imenica
upotrijebljenih u opstem smislu
• Copper is an important metal.
• Steel is produced in many countries.
• We buy bread every day.
• Water is not always clean.
e Gold is very expensive and valuable.
Honesty is extremely important.
Beauty is always very important.
I-Ie doesn't take sugar in his tea.
This chair is made of wood.
Silver is valuable, too.
3. Neodredeni clan ne upotrebljava se ispred naziva jczika.
• He is studying Chinese. Who studies Italian'!
e Many of us cannot speak French. Why don't we study Japanese?
4. Ovaj 61an ne upotrebljava se u nekim frazeoloskim izrazima:
by name, by train, by bus, to go to school, to go home, to go on foot, at home, at school,
to be in trouble, to be in shock, to do something in anger, on business, for pleasure, by
chance, made of (wood, glass, steel, iron), what on earth, in person, run after pleasure,
by sight, lo be in sight, to be in need of, out of place, in place.
• I know him only by name. We came by train (by bus).
• Our children go to school on fool. Will YOll be at home al four?
• When will you go home? You are in trouble right now?
• He wanted to talk to her in person. His conuncnt was out of place.
e They are in need of money. That big building is in sight.
• He did it just for pleasure. Did you go there on foot?
• Security measures are already in place.
U potreba odredenog clana
Odredeni clan po svom porijekiu je pokazna zamjenica. On ima sarno jedan oblik i za
jedninu i za mnozinu: the.
Odredeni clan se upotrebljava:
1. isprcd imenica koje S1I vee ranije pomcnute sa neodreaenim clanoITI. Ovoj grupi
pripadaju i imenice koje su vee odreaene odnosnom recenicom, nekom frazom iIi nekim
pridjevom, a takoder i imenice koje su poznatc govorniku i slusaocu, koje
podrazumijevaju govomik i slusalac.
• There is a man waiting for you.
e The city where he lives is beautiful.
• The boy who gave you this is my relative.
• The day of their arrival was significant.
• I saw a girl in the street.
• My father has bought a car.
• The boss wants to see YOll.
• Please, take the red book.
The man is very tall.
The man you met is my friend.
The girl was beautifuL
The car is out of this world.
The teacher is well again.
The green dress is better.
U svim gomjim primjerima imenica 0 kojoj se govori ilije vee pomenuta, Hi definisana,
ili je podrazumijevaju govomik i slusalac.
2. ispred unikatnih imenica tj. ispred imenica ad kojih postoji sarno jedna: the east,
the nmih, the NOtih Pole, the south, the west, the present (sadasnjost), the past (proslost),
the sun itd.
• Is it in the n01ih or in the south?
• I like to watch the moon.
• The moon goes round the earth.
• The NOlih Pole is far from here.
3. Ispred superlativa i rednih brojeva
• Mostar is the most beautiful town.
• That is the most expensive book.
• The first day at schooL
• The second man in the line is my son.
• This is the third time.
• The youngest student is my grandson.
• The best tennis player is Mr. Sampras.
• This is the best film I've ever seen.
• I live in the second house.
The present is difficult for him.
The earth is very much inhabited.
The past cannot be corrected.
The sun shines very pleasantly.
4. Ispred prezimen:l upotrijebljenih u znacenju mnozine
• The Smiths have already come.
• The Selimotics had a very nice time.
• Where are the Bests?
• The Clintons were velY popular.
131
5. Ispred naziva dri:lva i ostr\'3 s3.stavljcnih od pridjeva i imenicc
Ovoj kategoriji pripadaju i drugc vlastite imcnice geografskih pojmova llml1ozini,
• The United of America is big.
• She lives in the United Kingdom.
• The British Isles are popular.
• The Netherlands is small country.
6. Isprcd imcnH javnih instituta, galcrija, udruzcnja, brodova, hotcla,
pozorista, bioskopa, gostionica
o She often goes to the Odeon (cincma).
• The Ruza used to be a nice hotel.
• The Bristol has been rebuilt.
• Many people go to the National Museum.
• The Queen is a modem ship.
o The International War Crimes Tribunal",
• We met at the Europe (hotel).
Q They ate at the National Restaurant.
• The Oriental Institute in Sarajevo was completely destroyed .
.. The National Library in Sarajevo was deliberately set on fire.
o The United Nations are very important in today's troubled world,
o The Towcr of London is one of the oldest buildings in the United Kingdom.
• Let's have a look at the Houses of Parliament.
.. Have you ever been to the Metropolitan opera?
• He spent two weeks in Paris and visited the Eiffel Tower many times,
7. isprcd nazi va muzickih instrulllcnata
., She plays the piano very well. He doesn't play the violin.
• Does she play the guitar? No, he plays the cello.
• Who plays the accordion? I'm sure he plays the clarinet, too .
., I-Ie began playing the piano.
Napomena: Uz nazive igara sa gJagololJ1 "to play" ne upotl'ebUava se Clan. He plays
.rootball. They both play lennis. Do you.reellike playing chess?
8. isprcd poimelliccllih pridjeva
., As a nurse she took care of the sick.
• The rich don't help the poor.
o The strong should help the weak.
., The wounded are in critical condition,
• The blind need constant help.
• The intelligent learn very quickly.
The lazy caunot be successfuL
• The injured were taken to hospitaL
• The learned are helpful everywhere.
9. ispred imena pripadnilm naroda 11 mnozini kad oznacavaju cijelu naciju
s The Bosnians fought for their freedom,
• The Japanese work very hard.
s The Swiss have a good standard ofliving.
• The Russians live in Europe and Asia.
• The Chinese live in Asia.
e The Americans are business-oriented.
10, ispred imena rijeka, mora, okeana, planinskih vijenaca (ali ne i naziva pojedinih
planina i njihovih vrhova)
• The Neretva is a beautiful river,
• The Adriatic (Sea) is usually clean.
• The Danube is a very long river.
• The Atlantic is not so big as the Pacific.
• The Mediterranean is seldom rough.
• The Alps are often covered with snow.
• The Lake of lablanica is velY nice.
• She likes the Lake of Skadar.
11. ispred imenica u jednini kad one predstavljaju cijelu vrstu, kakav je slucaj i sa
upotrebom neodredenog clana.
• The cow gives us milk.
• The bee is an insect.
• The wolf can be velY dangerous,
• The ship is a very usefld means of transport .
• He thinks the horse is the most beautiful and the most intelligent animal
V
12. ispred rijeci: "same" i iza "all" "half' ( kad znaci "this")
• It is the same to me.
• That is the same car I saw yesterday,
• They arrived at the same time.
• Why do you repeat the same question?
• We happened to go the Same way.
• He was helping us all the time.
• They spent half (of) the day there.
• I haven't seen him for half (of) the year.
13. tlZ porninjanje dijelova dana sa prijedlogom "in" i "during"
• He came in the moming,
• We finished our job in the evening.
133
• Will you be at home in the afternoon?
• I often do it in the evening.
• He came to this area the other day.
• She will get up early in the morning.
• They work during the night and, of course, they sleep during the day.
Napomcna: Ako se dijelovi danG upotrijebc sa prijedlozima: "by" iii "at" odrccteni
Clan se He upolreb(java.
14. uz nazivc naslova lIovilla i
• Do you read the Times?
• The Bosnians read "Oslobodenje".
• Her father likes the Observer.
• I like to read the Feral Tribune and" Dani".
• Who reads the Independent?
• Today's issue of "Dnevni Avaz" has an interestnig headline.
15. uz nazive jezil{a ako im se doda rijec
• Many people study the English language.
• The Chinese language is difficult.
• The Bosnian language is spoken in Bosnia.
• The French language sounds nice.
16. uz saksonski genitiv, osim aka je upotrijebljcna vlastita imenica u saksonskom
genitivu
• I bought it at the grocer's.
• They will pick up some meat at the butcher's.
• Ali: Martha's book, Mirsad's father, Jane's son, Jennifer's daughter.
17. 11 izvjesnom broju idioma i fraza
to run the risk
half the way
in the beginning
talk the matter over
keep to the point
in the least
to have the honor
all the time
half the time
on the contr31Y
out of the question
• Lees talk the matter over.
• The more he helps, the better.
• They didn't complain in the least.
• That is the very watch I lost yesterday.
• He is the very man I saw an hour ago.
by the way
at the end
at the beginning
the very ...
in the end
- He kept talking all the time.
- Mind the step, please.
• You had better take the subway.
- At the end of the term, he got his diploma.
• On the whole, we are satisfied.
-In the meantime, I will eall him.
• He worked round the clock.
• On the contrary, he couldn't do anything about it.
• In this big tragedy everybody had to work against the clock.
• There was round the clock shelling of Sarajevo aat that time.
Izostavljanjc odrcdenog ciana
Odredeni clan ne upotrebljava se u relativno velikom broju slucajeva i konteksta. Stoga
je potrebno 15ta6i bar najvaznije kontekste u kojima se on izostavlja.
Odredeni clan se izostavlj a:
1. ispred vlastitih imena liea, gradova, drZava cija su imena ti jednini, ispred naziva
zeljeznickih stanica, ulica, mostova, trgova, parkova, aerodroma pojedinih brda i
planinskih vrhova, vulkana.
• Heathrow AirpOli is very big.
- Have you been to Hyde Park?
• Etna is still a live volcano in Italy.
• Velez is to the east of Mostar.
• I met John yesterday morning.
• I'll meet him in Sarajevo on Sunday.
• Many people meet at Trafalgar Square.
• Many poor people live in Africa.
- She used to live in Oxford Street.
• We live in Europe.
• Victoria Station was built a long time ago.
• Sarajevo AirpOIi is pretty small.
• They alTived at Victoria Station at 6.
• Who came on Friday?
• Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the whole world.
• Westminster Bridge and London Bridge are well known everywhere.
2. ispred apstraktnih imenica upotrijebljenih U ope em smislu, ispred gradivnih i
nebrojivih imenica i naziva obroka:
• Life is not always easy.
135
• She likes music very much.
o Vole cannot live only on love.
• They didn't have enough money.
• Do you have enough food?
• Mr. Brown prefers beer to water.
o They say: "Time is money".
" Pridc is very important.
• This furniture is made of wood.
• Time waits for no man.
• I don't drink beer at alL
• It is necessary to have breakfast.
• He likes bread for breakfast.
• We don't buy salt so often.
• We have lunch in the afiemoon.
" Steel is used for various products.
• vVool is wanner than cotton.
• After dinner I go for a walk.
• Evclybody likes success.
Izuzetak: Ako su gradivne i apstraktne imenice i nazivi za obroke upotrijebljeni u
odredenom sl71is/u onda se s njima upotrebljava odredeni Clan
• It was the time when he Was wounded.
• She likes the music of Mozart.
• The pride of the young is desirable,
• The food I ale yesterday was bad,
e The bread he ate yesterday was not good.
• Would you pass me the salt?
• The lunch we had at the Bristol was excellent.
• The bread I bought was good,
• The dinner we had yesterday was bad.
e The steel we lIsed is very good.
• Have you got the money you need?
• The success we have had is fantastic.
• The beer 1 drank yesterday gave me a stomachache.
• She likes the love the children give her.
• The life of Mostar people was miserable during the war.
3. ispred imenica: school, market, prison, college, hospital, horne, mosque, church,
table, bed, kad se podrazurnijeva njihova namjena i svrha. Medutim, kad se misIi na
zgrade u kojima se pomenute sluibe obavljaju, na predmete (bed, table) odredeni clan
se upotrebljava ispred tih imenica.
• School doesn't begin in August.
.. The intruder was sent to prison.
1](:
You should go to bed early,
They ail were at table at 5,
• Was he in hospital yesterday? She went to college last year.
Ali:
• That is the school of my son. This building is the prison.
• The bed! was given is comfortable. The table in the kitchen is clean.
4. ispred imenica koje oznacavaju diD dana ako im prethode prijedlozi at ili by.
Medutim, ako takvim imenicama prethode prijedlozi in ili during onda upotrebljava
se odredeni clan.
o They don't work by night.
• He carne at dawn yesterday.
• It is pleasant to have a walk at daybreak.
Ali:
• He works in the morning.
• Who can sleep during the day?
5. u izvjesnom broju ustaljenih fraza:
Most people work by day.
I have lunch at noon.
She sleeps in the aftemoon.
hand in hand, from rnoming till night, on purpose, on top of, for instance, by accident,
by surprise, in shock, in anger; to be in sight, in person, in service, on business, to put
on weight, in time, out of fashion, keep good time, in vain, be in touch, keep in touch,
in mind, on top of, to leave to chance, to live from hand to mouth, out of touch, get in
touch, to be out of change, to pass from hand to hand, at hand, to get out of hand, by
pure chance, make yourself at home itd.
• We found her by pure chance.
• Did you go there on business?
• Make yourself at home.
• I wanted to see him in person.
• He kept trying but it was all in vain.
e Jane keeps in touch with Peter.
• On top of it, I had to pay line.
• The situation got out of hand.
• ! did it on purpose.
• He lived in shock for a long time.
They live from hand to mouth.
Does your watch keep good time?
What do you have in mind?
This bus is now in service.
These dresses are out of fashion.
Get in touch with John by tomorrow.
I'm sorry, I'm out of change.
They walked hand in hand .
They caught him by surprise.
She works from morning till night.
Napomena: Upotreba odl'etlenog i neodreftenog clana i njihova izostClvljanje, ocito,
irna svoje brojne specijicnosti. Te spec([icnosti treba upoznati svako ko ima
pretenzUe i ieUu da se pravilno sluii engleskil11 jezikol11, nal'Oato na
akademskoll1 nivou.
137
IV PRJDJEVI
Gramatika eng/eskog jezika
Pridjevi su rijeCi kojc pebliie opisuju liea, stvari, mjesta, apstraktne pojrnove ~
ukratko ani se dodaju imcnicama cia ih preciznije odrede ili definisu. Pridjevi se i u
englcskom kao i u nasern jeziku mogu upotrijehiti atributivno (ispred imcnice) iIi
prcdikativno (kao dia predikataL I2D.b.r.o. dijetc, dobr<l djevojcica, dobar covjek, d.uhri
ljudi, dobra djeca, ~ djevojcice, dobrirn ljudima, dobrih Jjudi, itd. su sve atributivno
upotrijebljeni pridjevi jer stoje ispred imenica da odrede njihove osobine, karakteristike.
Ti isti pridjevi upotrijebljeni predikativno bi izgledali ovako: Dijete .Ie dobre. Djevojcica
.Ie ~ Ti svi Ijudi su dohri. itd. 06to .Ie da nasi atributivno i predikativno upotrijebljeni
pridjevi imaju razlicite nastavke zavisno od roda, broja i padeza irnenice ispred
koje stoje, odnosno kojirna su dodati kao dio predikata.
Bitna karakteristika engleskih pridjeva (kako atributivno, taka i predikativno
upotrijebljenih) ogleda se u cinjenici da engJeski pridjevi nernaju nikakvih nastavaka
bez obzira na rod broj i padez irnenica kojima su dodate. Od ovog pravila su sarno
izuzeti pokazni pridjevi koji irnaju razlicite ohOke za jedninu (this, that) i za rnnoZinu
(these those). To znacajno olaksava ucenje i usvajanje engleskih pridjeva: potrehno je
nauciti sarno njihova pojedinacna znacenja ali ne i oblike, posto su ani uvijek identicni
u svim mogucirn upotrebnim kombinacijama.
• a lazy boy (girl) cold (hot) water
• a noisy (quiet) street a relaxed woman (man)
• a shy (talkative) person a cheap (an expensive) car
• a difficult (an easy) question a hardworking man (woman)
• a dangereus(safe) action an old, (a new) car
• dirty (clean) streets poor (rich) people itd.
Napomena 1: Relativno mali brC!i pridjeva moze se upotrebljavClti samo predikativno:
fond Qr. qfraid Qr. a<;/eeu mn:v wQrth itd He js VelY SQrt)' The chUd is.
S 1 i l l ~
Napomena,2: Pridjevi mogll imati junkciju imenice akQ se uPQtrijebe sa odretlenim
Clanom i (ada za njih kaiemo da Sll pOimeniceni pridjevi.
• The poor have a di(ficult life. The }vOllJ1ded H((ered a lot.
• The blind have a difficult life The deh cannot understand the pOOl:
• The brave have food luck
The old don 'f understand the voung.
.. The voung don't lfnderstand the old
Napomena 3: Imenice vrlQ cesto prellzimajujunkciju Qdrednice drugih imenica (stoje
jedna ad bitnih karakteristika pridjeva) a da pri tom ne pretlpe nikakve
jormalne promjene, ne dobiju nastavke iii bilo kakva clnlga obiljezja,
141
zata slo pricljevi i nemaju nikakvihfol'malnih obiljeija koja hi ill izdvajala
ad drugill vn·;la njeh Olli se S({fIla upntrebljavaju ispred imenica kao
odrednice till imcnica.
• Here cOl1les Mike. He is a ytmnv coliectO/:
e Wouldyot! like vCf<,table soup!
• Is this gentleman an animal trainer?
• This.f12m:.r. garden is vel)' nice.
The river bank is beautiful.
This is a famolls /2QQk publisheJ:
The silJ.£.lJmLtextbook is old.
e There are mOllY men and ,vome}} who have aJlt.:g extinguisher in their hands.
• Have they caught that b.n.nls:. robber?
• There are a few ds2g catchers in the street.
• Can you see that wondel/ul o.JJkg building over there?
BUno obiljezje pridjeva kojc se mora objasniti i nauciti jcste njihovo poredenje.
Poredenjem se izrazavajednakost (istovjetnost) ili njihovo odsustvo (nulto poredeniet
Svojstvo (obiljezje) zastupljeno u vecoj mjeri (pozitivno iii negativno) izrazava se iIi
komparativom iii superlativom.
Poredenje pridjeva
1. Takozvano nulto poredenje u potvrdnom j odricnom obliku cine oblici pridjeva kada
se porede dvije pojave, dva svojstva itd. podjednakih iii veoma slicnih karakteristika i
vrijednosti. Ovakvo poredenje se upotrebljava i kada se porice postojanje veoma slicnih
iIi jednakih karakteristika i vrijednosti. Ovom vrstom poredenja se, dakle, potvrduje
jednakost iii neiednakost
Obrazac za nulto poredenje je: as + pridjev + as za potvrdni i not as + pridjev + as za
odrecni oblik.
• Maria is !lQt ~ a student as. Azra.
• This book is not as thin as that one.
e He is as stubborn as a mule.
• Their backyard is not as clean as. ours,
• Baseball is not as popular as. football.
• His brother is not as old as my sister.
John is as intelligent as. Peter.
Marta is as heavy ~ Olga.
He is as brave as a hero.
It was as difficult aas ever.
His tic is as nice as Mark's tie.
.. The streets in Mostar aren't as clean as they used to be before the war.
• They are also not as nice as they used to be.
2. Komparativ se mote tvoriti na dva nacina:
14?
l!J. komparatjv iednosloinih (i nekih dvosloinih) pridjeva,
hl komparativ viSesloznih pridjeva.
Komparativ jednosloznih i nekih dvosIoznih pridjeva
Jednoslozni kao i dvoslozni pridjevi koji se zavrsavaju na -er, -my, -le,-some, -y, i neki
pridjevi koji imaju nag-Jasak na pryom sJogu, grade komparativni oblik dodavanjem
nastavka -er iii -r. (-I' uz pridjeve koji se zavrsavaju na -e.)
sad sadder near nearer
soft softer
fat fatter
dry drier
happy happier
meny merrier
yellow yellower
bitter bitterer
narrow narrower
large
brave
strong
small
busy
clever
nice
lonesome
larger
braver
stronger
smaller
busier
cleverer
nicer
lonesomer
tall
simple
cold
shOJi
old
lazy
easy
noble
taller
simpler
colder
shOlier
older
lazier
easier
nobler
06to ie da pri!ikolU tvorhe komparativa nastaju \l pridjevtl neke promjene:
a) pridjevi na -e dohivaju nastavak --f u komparatjvu; polite - politer,
nice - nicer, large - larger, simple - simpler.
b) pridjevi koji Se zavrsavaju OJ sng-Ias!)ik a prethQdi im kratak samoglasnik
udvQstruCavaiu svoj sug1asnik: sad -, sadder, fat - fatter, big - bigger, thin - thinner,
slim - slimmer itd .• vee zavrSava na dvostruki konzonant njemu se sarno
dada nastavak -cr: tall taller; small - smaller.
• She is a nicer person 1llim I thought.
• He is friendlier than his brother.
His hair should be a little
These streets are
• Motorcycles arc !han bicycles. Our summers are warmer than theirs.
• Which classroom is 0000?
• It's safer to live here 1l.lim...it used to be.
• His apartment is much and lighter than mine.
o Mirsad was happier here than abroad.
Izuzetal(:
just - more just real - more real wrong - more wrong
NaDomena: Nakon kOl11o{lrar;va (esto se upotrebliava riiee than.
143
.. \Vho is happier, you or your brother?
.. Buses are safer 1llim motorbikes. Stories are shorter than novels .
.. X is much younger thrul Y. This road is broader lliill! the other one .
.. She is prettier 1l:illn I thought. He wants the bigger, not the smaller size .
.. John is much older than Maria. My textbook is thinner than hers .
.. Peter is smatter 1h.;m his sister. It is colder today than it was yesterday.
• X is nobler lhllil Y My car is faster lhllil his .
.. Who is stronger? Mirza was much braver than Mladen .
.. It is really more wrong than I previously thought.
• His grandfather is much taller .thilu his grandmother.
.. His statement is more correct than mine.
Komparativ viSesloznih pridjeva
Neki dvoslozni i svi viseslozni pridjevi lIe grade komparativ dodavanjem nastavaka-
er (r), vee upotrebom adverba more ispred osnovnog pridjevskog oblika. Dvoslozni
pridjevi koji imaju naglasak na prvom slogu i dvoslozni pridjevi sa zavrsetkom na dYa
suglasnika ponaSaju se prj kO!11parjraniu kao viSesloZni pridjevi i stoga ne dobivaju
nastavke.
• delightful
• comfOitable
.. interesting
• confused
.. ancient
• crowded
.. careful
=.delightful
ill.Q!e comfoliable
interesting
= confused

= crowded

lllQf.e....correct
expensive
charming
dangerous
learned
useful
convenient
unpleasant
=
!11.QIe expensive
more charming


= useful
convenient

Nevelik broj pridjeva mogu praviti komparativ na oba naNna
• severe
• precise
• common
.. handsome
• sincere
• profouhd
• polite

lllQf£: precise

l.11.Q.U':. handsome

= profound

severer
preciser
commoner
handsomer
sincerer
profounder
politer
U slozenih pridjeva komparira se njihov prvi dio na jedan od moguCih nacina, sto
ovisi od vrste pridjeva: jednoslozni pridjevi, pridjevi sa nepravilnom komparacijom,
viseslozni pridjevi itd.
JY.cll-kT1.Q.wn writer (actor, player)
o well-educated person
• llninfofl11.Q,d chief
better known writer (actor, player)
better educated person
less chief
·lonb'-!asting trouble lonGer-lasting trouble
• time-dependent process mOf£...timc-,dependent process
• shape of this process hetter resulting shape of this process
• wel!- designed bridgebetter designed bridge
• There is a weU-educated man over there. He is sitting next to an even better educated
woman.
• Do YOIl think that Camil Sijaric is a well-known writer? Yes, I do, but a
known writer in Bosnia is Mesa Selimovic.
POSChfUl mOg'lIcnost upotrebe komparativa prisutna je II ti'azama 1I kojima se koristi
model thc+ Iwmparativ pridjcva+ the+ komparativ.
• The more you buy, the more you will pay.
• soonet: you call me, the better.
• The more you study, the better for you.
• The less you talk, the better.
• The more you swim, the healthier you'll be.
• The less one drinks, the better.
• The more you eat, the fatter you'll be.
• The easier, the better for us.
Karakteristicna Je struktura:
The + komparativ pridJeva + imenica + the + Iwmparativ.
• The younger the child, the more help of the parents it needs.
• The healthier food you eat, the better life quality you will have.
Napomena: Komparativ se moze pojacati na jedan od dva moglfca naCina:
a) llpotrebomjednag ad sljedeCih izraza:/w; a great deal, still, much, so
much. even,
b) pOllav{janjem komparaNva.
a The weather is fm' more pleasant than it was yesterday.
• My apartment is even more comfol1'f!ble than hers.
a Your job is responsible, but mine is still more responsible.
• I agree, your work is hard, but mine is much harder.
• Today is so much colder than it was last night.
a The current situation must be a..g,reat deal easier than the previous one.
a I suppose it's much better to do it now than tomorrow.
• I"Iis position is getting worse and worse.
e These days are becoming colder aOftcolder.
145
3. Superlativ pridjeva pokazuje da je ncko svojstvo Hi obiljdje imenica kojima su
dodati bilo kao atribut, bilo kao dio predikata (predikativ) izrazeno u najvecoj mogucoj
mjcri.
Superiativ jednosloinih i nekih dvosloinih pridjcva
Superlativ jednosloznih pridjeva i dvosloznih pridjeva na -CI; -ow, -Ie, -some, -y, te
nckih dvosloznih pridjeva sa naglaskol11 na prvom slogu tvore superlativ dodavanjem
nastavaka -est, (iii -st za pridjevc koji se zavrsavaju na -e).
Ispred superlativa pridjeva obavezno se odredeni clan, ako pridjevu ne
prethodi prisvojni pridjev: my, your, her, its, his, our, tbeir iIi pokazni pridjev this, that,
these, those iii jedan od glavnih brojeva (one, three, five, ten .. )
Kada se grade superlativi u pridjevu nastaju iste one promjene koje su pomenute uz
tvorbu komparativa: udvostrucavanje stIgiasnika, pl'ctvaranje y u i, doclavanje
nastavka -st -est.
sad the saddest near
cold
the nearest
the coldest brave
dry
happy
simple
lazy
the bravest
the driest
the happiest
the simplest
the laziest itd.
strong the strongest
small the smallest
merry the melTiest
• He is the saddest person I ever met.
• The bravest men and women live here .
.. The wisest person there was Sam,
• It was the longest tennis game,
.. The driest season was last year.
• She is the tallest girl in our class.
• Is that her newest hat?
• Our oldest relative lives in New York.
e His strongest friend is Tarik.
• The loudest band was forbidden to play.
• I left my darkest suit at home .
.. The coldest months are winter months.
• Her prettiest dress is green.
• Andy had the oldest clothes on.
• She is the nicest person in the class,
.. Who is the smartest student here?
.. The laziest student has not come yet.
146
tall
nice
large
old
busy
the tallest
the nicest
the largest
the oldest
the busiest
.. Who nms the cheapest store?
.. He chose the finest color for his painting.
Nevelil( broj pridjeva mogu tvoriti superlativ na oba naClna
severe
precise
common
handsome
sincere
profound
the severest
the precis est
the commonest
the handsomest
the sincerest
the profoundest
Superlativ viSesloznih pridJeva
the most severe
the most precise
the most common
the most handsome
the most sincere
the most profound
Viseslozni pridjevi grade superlativ upotrebom rijeci most a ispred rijeCi "most" obavezan
je odredeni 61an iIi p1'isvojni pridjev (my, his, her, our itd.) iii neka druga od1'ednica
(pokazni pridjev: this, that, these, those), iIi neki od glavnih brojeva (one, two, five .. ).
• Germany produces the 1110st reliable cars.
• He is the most honest man I know.
• We sell the most beautiful suits here .
.. Azra is the most intelligent person .
.. Who is the most interesting teacher?
• Who is the most generolls teacher?
• They are the most energetic parents .
.. He is the most impolite student.
• He sold me the most comfOliable chairs.
• She has two most talented children
.. This was the most dangerous war.
• This is the most expensive botel.
• Her fumiture is the most comfortable.
• Who is the most stubborn girl here?
• Is this the most convenient time?
.. She must be the most helpful person.
• This is the most beautiful sonata.
• I watched the most exciting film.
• They built the most impressive bridge here.
• This famous architect designed the most magnificent building.
• You can get the most delicious mea!s bere.
• The most famous actress in the whole world wore these earrings.
• They have bought the most uncomfotiable armchairs.
147
• That gentlemen often wears the most modem suits you can imagine .
• He plays football and he is the most popular student in Mostal'.
Napolllena: (;esta se upatrebljava struktura: a + 11I0st + pridjev koja ne iskazlde
kOl11pariranje vec ielju govornika (pisca) da izmzi postojmv'e neke asobine,
(!wrakteristike) u veofl/u velikaj "?jeri. A most interesting event (izrazito
veo/lla - izuzetllo zanim!jiv a 1110st beautiful girl; a most desirable
development; a /IIost regrettable action: a most succes.<,/uljob.
4. Nepravilna komparacija pridjeva
Izvjestan broj pridjeva ima takozvanu ncpravilnu komparaciju. Oni se ne porcde po
pravilima koja vaze za druge pridjeve pa se stoga kaie da imaju nepravilnu komparaciju.
Nepravilnost se ispoljava na razlicite nacine: mijenjanje osnove pridjeva, dva pridjeva
imaju iste komparative i superlative i stieno.
good better the best
bad, ill, evil
little
much, many
far
near
old
late
worse
less (smaller)
more
farther (fUl1her)
nearer
older (elder)
later (latter)
• His brother Mark is a better man.
• My report was better than yours.
• Your grades are very bad.
• And Anna's grades are the worst of alL
• His parents had little good luck ill their life.
the worst
the least (the smallest)
the most
the farthest (the furthest)
the nearest ( the next)
the oldest (the eldest)
the latest (the last)
But the best of all is his sister.
Mary's report is the best one.
My grades are even worse.
• We all bad even less good luck when the war began.
• But those who were wounded had the least good luck.
PotrebllO je objasniti upotrebu nekih pridjeva koji imaju nepravilnu komparaciju i onih
koji imaju dvostruke komparative i (ili) dvostruke superlative da bi njihovi komparativi
i superJativi bili pravilno upotrebljavani.
Bad - ill - evil
Bad znaCi los, ill bolestan, a evil: zao. Svi oni imaju isti komparativ i superlativ.
• This evil act is worse than we thought. In fact, it is the worst criminal act I know.
• He is a bad man. His behavior is worse than before. In fact, his current behavior is
the worst possible.
Little - less - the least; much - more - the most
Little j much (kao j njihovi komparativi i superlativi) Sf' upotrcbljavaju sa nebrojivim
imcnicama. Isprcd little se moze upotrijebiti neodredeni Clan "a" pa onda a little znaci
malo, mala kolieina, neSto. Komparativ od l.i.J.J.l.£ je It:.:i.:i a superlativ the least.
• There is a little water in the fridge. .. There was little hope to save them.
• He drank a little orange juice. • They drink little alcohol.
• There is not much bread, • Why do you drink so much water?
.. I haven't got very much time. .. There is much snow in the streets .
.. They have less experience than we. .. Please make less noise.
• You make too much noise. • We had the least trouble possible.
Few - many upotrebljavaju se HZ brojive imenice u mnozini. Few znaei mali broj
neeega, izvjestan broj a many veliki broj.
• Few students have passed the exam. • Fewer students attend the lecture.
• Bring me a few books, please. • A few of my friends have come,
• Many students have passed the exam.
.. Most of them are good students.
• More students attend the lecture .
- A few of the soldiers have been wounded velY badly.
Late -later - latter - the latest - the last
Late ima pravilan komparativ i dva superlativa. Late ~ later the latest znaci kasno kasnije
najkasnije (najnovije). Latter, the last oznaeava redosljed. Latter znaCi drugo pomenuta
pojava, predmet, dogadaj, osoba. The last znaci zadnji u nizu, posljednji od veceg
broja, zadnjepomenuti. Last upotrijebljen bez odredenog elana znaci posljednji: Last
year, last Sunday, last month .
.. The late summer comes at last.
• He's late in filing his tax return.
.. The later train is not convenient.
• He spent his later years in England.
• The latest edition appeared last week.
• That was the last bus today.
- I don't read the last page of the newspaper,
• They gathered the latest fhlits.
.. I'm sorry I'm late .
.. The latest news is the best.
• This is the latest fashion.
• Is there any later bus today?
.. His last action was very useful.
-I don't know which is thc last novel by Mesa Selimovic.
• There are two styles of fumiture.The former is cheaper and the lattcr is more durable .
.. There are two books under the chair: an English book, and a history book. The latter
one belongs to my brother .
.. I met two of my f'l'iends: Mark and Jack. The latter is my best friend.
Far - further - the furthest (farther - the farthest)
Oblici komparativa i superlativa napisanih sa "a" razlikuju se od oblika napisanih sa
"u" sarno u nijansama znaeenja. Oblici:larther thelarilles! se uglavnom upotrebJjavaju
149
u konkretnom ZIl<lCenju da iskazu udaljenost. Oblici }LlrthC!; the furthest mogu se
upotrijebiti i u konkrctnom i u prenescnom znacenju,
e Who needs further information? Would you need further help?
e I couldn't walk any furthcL
• He lived fanher from the city center then,
• This is much farther away,
.. Don't do anything until further orders,
• Do you have anything Curther to say?
• The farthest shop is three miles from here,
• There is a little cottage on the fUlihest side of the mountain,
• She lives at the farthest (furthest) point of this street.
Neal' - nearer - the nearest - next
Ovaj pridjev ima dva superlativa cija su znacenja razlicita, Osnovno znacenje pridjeva
jeste izrazavanje prostorne blizine iii bliskosti u rodbinskim odnosima, Superlativ the
next iii next znaCi sljedeCi po redu,
.. The nearest hotel is the "Bristol". I think the "Neretva" is much nearer,
• My nearest relatives live in Sarajevo. Next please,
• The near future is not all that bad, He is my nearest relative in Most-ar,
• The nearest mountain is a long way from here,
• Go to the restaurant nearer to the bridge, and you'll get a very good dinner.
Old - older - the oldest, (elder - the eldest)
Komparativ older i superlativ the oldest izrazavaju poredenje sa nekim iIi necim, Tada
se upotrebljava rijec than kao i kod drugih poredenja, Oblici elder i the eldest zapravo
ne izrazavaju porec1enje, vec pokazuju da su neld clanovi porod ice stariji (najstariji),
bilo po godinama, bilo po statusu u porodici, Elder the eldest se mogu upotrebljavati
samo atributivno,
• Mr. Smith is older than Mr, Miller.
• Who is older, you or your sister?
• His father is older than mine,
o He is the oldest member on our team.
• His elder sister is a good student.
• The name if her eldest sister is Ann,
• Our eldest brother is a doctor.
• Her eldest son is defending his Ph.D. thesis in Sarajevo right now,
Napomena: Superlativ se maze pojacati upotrebom priloga by fur i very W upotrebom
riject possible, imaginable iza imenice koju deJinise odgovarajuCi
upotrijebljeni pridjev.
• This is, by fm; the most valuable action.
• He is, by fm; the most useful player on our team,
150
• We have the velY lowest price/or high qualityfurniture.
• She is, byfm; the most beautiful girl in our class.
e That mllst be the velY easiest problem 1 have everfaced.
• It is the greatest misfortune imaginable.
• He is the best player possible.
• M,: Smith is the strongest wrestler imaginable.
Pridjevi 1I engleskomjeziku mogu se nauCiti relativno 1ahko jernemaju nikakve nastavke
kojima bi se odredio rod, broj i padez. Ni kamparacija, acito, nije sllvise komplikovana
aka se izuzmu dvostruki oblici kamparativa i superlativa i ako se pravovremeno nauce
pravila 0 pridjevima koji se kompariraju pomocu nastavaka i 0 pddjevima koji u
komparaciji koriste priloge more i the most.
151
V ZAMJENICE
Gramatika engleskog jezika
I:
U engleskom jeziku obieno govori se 0 tri vrste zamjenica: liene, prisvojne i
povratne. Druge vrste rijcCi, koje se u nasemjeziku uce kao zamjenice, mogu u engleskom
jeziku biti upotrijebljene kao zamjenice i kao pridjevi, pa ce biti obradene pod naslovom
Zamjenice iii prir!jevi.
Bitno obiljezje zamjenica jeste u tome da se one uvijek upotrebljavaju samostalno, da
ne mogu imati atributivna svojstva, tj. da se ne mogu koristiti kao atributi. Rijeci koje se
mogu upotrijebiti atributivno imaju funkcijll i obiljezja pridjeva, bez obzira kojoj vrsti
rijeCi formaIno pripadajll.
Licne zamjenice
Kad licnih zamjenica razlikujemo njihove eetiri karakteristike: rod broj vadei i lice
Nominativ Iicnih zamjenica: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they. Njihova funkcija u
recenici je subjekat ~ tj. vrsilac radnje. Ako je u recenici upotrijebljena jedna od licnih
zllmjenica u nominativu, ona ie najcesce (ne uvijek) upotrijebJjena na prvom mjestu u
reeenici.
Subjekat u eng!eskomjeziku ne moze se podrazumijevati, vee mora se uvijek upotrijebiti
zato $to fOlmalna obiljezja riieCi u okruZenju on morfoio$kom nivou a ni formalna
objUeZia zamjenica ne pokazuju dovoJjQO jasno koja je rijec subiekat u recenici
U nasem jeziku taj zahtjev ne mora biti zadovoijen, jer okruzenje uvijek polcazuje koja
je rijee subjekat. Ides Ii u skolu? (subjekat je ti) Idem u skolu., 0a); Idemo u skolu.,
(mi); Idete u skolu. (vi) . Formalna obiljezja rijeci U okruZenju oa morfoloskom nivou
ne ostavljaju nikakvu sumnju koja rijec (zamjenica) ima funkciju subjekta. To nije slucaj
sa engleskim jezikom pa se subjekat mora 1zri6to pomenuti.
• We have just come back. She will go with liS to work.
• He will not come to the party. We stayed at home yesterday.
• They gave me some money yesterday. It is a \vonderful experience.
• Have you already called him? [ really don't know that.
Akuzativ licnih zamjenica me, you, him, her, it, liS, you, them. One se upotrebljavaju
u funkciji direktnog objekta. Mec1utim, po svojoj formi akuzativ licnih zamjenica se ne
razlikuje od njjhovog datjva Drugim rijeCima jedni te 1sti oblici imajll dvostrukll
funkciju: funkciju direktnog i fllnkcijll indirektnog objekta. Dativ (indirektni objekat)
obicno se naznacava prepozicijama: (to, with itd.) koje oznacavajll njihovll funkciju,
ili glagolima koji zahtijevajll upotrebu indirektnog objekta.
155
I
I
I

o Whom did you ask, him or her? Neither him nor her. 1 saw you.
• Will your send you abroad? I'm sure he will help us tomorrow.
o Where is your book? It is in the living room. 1 put it on the shelf
• I was at the theatre last nigbt and she saw me there.
Prepozicionalni objekat
• I explained everything to them. He is waiting for us.
• Did you buy something for me? Please give that book to me.
• Have you got any answer from him? No, but I got the answer from her.
• Will the teacher explain this rule to you?
Prisvojne zamjenice
Oblici prisvojnih zamjenica razlikuju se od prisvojnih pridjeva. Zamjenice imaju i
formalne karakteristike koje ih izdvajaju od drugih vrsta rijeCi, ali je oblik za trece lice
jednine muskog roda identican sa odgovarajucim prisvojnim pridjevol)1: mine, yours,
hers, his, its, ours, yours, theirs.
Prisvojne zamjenice uvijek se upotrebljavaju bez imenice; one zapravo zamjenjuju
odgovarajuce imenice.
• That backpack is not mine. Probably it's hers.
• It was not our mistake, but theirs.
That book must be yours.
This book must be his.
• "Is this office ours?" "No, it's neither yours, nor ours, nor theirs."
• "Whose office is it then'?"
• "Don't you know that our new manager is Mrs. Taylor. So it's hers."
• "Oh, I see, I wish it were mine."
Povratllc zamjcnice
Oblici povratnih zamjenica: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, Uednina)
ourselves, yourselves i themselves (mnozina).
Poyratne 7mnienice mogu imatj 1Tj razliQite uPQtrebe'
1. one pokazuju da.ie -subjekat recenice istovrellleno i njcn objekt.
• That woman hurl herself badly. He was vel)' proud of himself.
.. Vie can protect ourselves. Why don't you shave yourself?
• He spoke to himself at that time. Why don't you help yourselves'!
• We helped ourselves to some fruit. He fixed his car by himself.
• She is old enough to dress herself.
• "Who fixed your TV?" "I did. By myself."
.. I myself prefer to pay someone to do that .
.. The children cooked something to eat themselves.
• I cannot talk about myself T'llleave this to my friends to do it.
You are pleased with yom·self.
2. Ove zamjenice mogu se upotrijebiti emfatictlo. Tada se prevode sa: ia lieno. ia sam.
mi Iieno itd Kada se taka llPotrebljavaju onda se naglasayaju priJikom njihov..Qg

I myself didn't understand the question.
The president herself warned us.
He himself told me this bad news.
She did it by herself.
We ollrselves wanted to see the manager.
You l11ust do it yourself.
She herself said so.
Can you do it by yourself?
He carried this by himself.
They say they have done this difficult job by themselves,
Anna said that the teacher herself (himself) told her the test result.
He tried to fix his car by himself.
She tried to fix her fridge by herself.
They repaired their TV by themselves.
I fixed my bicycle by myself.
3. Povratne zamjenice l110gu se upotrijebiti i u funkciji (j umjesto) licnih zamienica
kada ih sa prethodnolTI imenicom povezuju veznici and iii like.
• My friends and myself went there.
• They, like ourselves, hate this incident.
• Peter and myself want to help you.
• We, like yourselves, should do that.
• Only his mother and himself understood the problem they t'\Ced.
• My friend and myself are having trouble with our cars.
157
VI ZAM,JENICE ILl PRIDJEVI
Gramatika engfeskog jezika
Mnoge nase zamjenice u engleskom jeziku klasifikuju se istovremeno i kao
pddjevi zato sto mogu biti upotrijebljeni ispred imenica kao njihovi atrihliti. One, dakle,
mogu imati elvostruku funkciju pa ih u engleskom jeziku tretiraju na elva nacina ovisno
ad konkrctne upotrebe: iii kao zamjenice ili kaD odgovarajuce pridjeve.
Zamjenice upotrebljavaju se samo predikativDo (kan din predikma) a aka se Ie iste
riieCi upotrijebe alrihll1"jvno Ospted i mcnica da ih pobljZe odrede) nncla se treljraju kao
pridjevi Drugim rijecima, oblik (forma) rijeci De odreduje da Ii ee one biti tretirane kao
zamjcnice iii kao pridjevi, vee samo njihova funkcija. Oblik.ie najcesee identiCan i u
funkciji zamjeniee i u funkeiji pridjeva, pa to ne moze bit! kritcrij za njihovo
razlikov3nJc.
Sve ove rijeci koje mogu imati i funkeiju pridjeva i fllnkcijll zamjcniee J110gu se podijeliti
na:
1. prisvojne zarnjenice i pridjeve,
2. "pitne zamjenice i pridjeve,
3. pokazne zamjenice i pridjeve,
4. odnosne zamjenice i pridjeve,
5. neodredenc zamjeniee i pridjeve.
1. Prisvojnc zamjenice i pridjevi
Prisvojne zamjenice objasnjene su 1I poglavlju koje se odnos! sarno na zamjenice iz dva
bitna razloga: a) engleske prisvojne zamjenice se vee i po formi razlikuju od prisvojnih
pridjeva, b) pornenllte prisvojne zamjenice mogu biti upotrijebljene sarno predikativno
a ne i atributivno u funkdji pridjeva. Prisvojne zamjeniee i prisvojni pridjevi u nasem
jeziku .in:lliju jstj oblika, ali se u engleskom njihovi oblic! medusobno razlikuju. M):.,.
your bis, ber, jts our. your their 511 prjsvojni prjdievj, a odgoV3raiuCe prisyojne zamjenice
suo mine. yO!JJ's his hers its. oms yours theirs.
Mi na nasern jeziku kazemo:.J2YQ je lllQja o!ovka. (pridjev) IYD.i.il je tamo na klupi.
(Tvrun zamjeniea ,ier zamjenjuje imenicll: olovka). Gdje su tvoji roditelji? (pridjev)
Mod su, mislim, kod kuee. (zamjenica)
Prisvojni pridjevi su: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their. Upotrebljavaju se sarno
uz imeniee da odrede pripadanje . Prisvojni pridjevi mogu svojom formom naznaCiti
rod imenice sarno u treeem lieu jednine (her brother, his sister).
Prisvojni pridjevi cesto se upotrebJjavaju umjcsto odredenog ciana kada se naeu ispred
imenica koje oznacavaju dijelove tijela (my left leg, my face, my right hand) i kada se
odnose na roditelje, braeu, sestre, rodbinu (her father, his sister, my aunt)
161
• Her husband fixed their TV,
.. She gave her brother some money .
.. My aunt came to New York.
o His sister started 10 work at (the) hospital.
• Do )'our homework first!
.. Your dress is quite dry now.
e His friends have played very well.
.. The shirt is not clean. Its sleeve is dirty .
.. OUf house is old. Its roof needs repair .
.. My grandchildren go to school.
.. What are their children doing?
• Their notebooks arc quite clean.
2. Upitne zamjcnicc i pridjevi
Upitne rijeci: who, whom, whose, what, which, imaju razlicite funkcije u recenici.
Who i whom mogu biti upotrijebljeni samo kao zamjcl1ice. Upitne rijeci ~
which i what se magu upotrijebiti i kao pridjevi (ispred imenice) i kao
zamjenice.
Who, whom
Upotrebljavaju se sarno kao zamjenice i odnose se sumo no liea De i na stvari, Pri
upotrebi zamjenice ~ ona najcesce ima funkciju subjekta, ali se moze upotrijebiti i
kao objekat, kada se upotrebljava umjesto zamjenice J:Ybmn
• Who is your brother? • Who has come to help you?
• Who will go with us to the airport? • Who wants to read this report?
• Who went to do shopping yesterday? • \Vho would have done such a thing?
Whom
Zamjenica whom ima funkciju direktnog objekta,
• Whom did she invite to the palty? • Whom arc you looking for?
• Whom do you want to ask? • Whom do you want to introduce to me?
• Whom is he calling? • Whom is Mr. Smith visiting?
U govomomjeziku, gotovo u svakoj situaciji, ~ se zamijenjuje sa:mm naroCito u
americkoj konverzaciji, Treba, medutim, spomenuti da to jos uvijek nije u gramatici
prihvaccno kao standardna nonna,
Will.m moze bid upotrijebljen i sa prijedlozima kao prepozicionalni objekat.
162
Prijcdlozi: rl'ith (OJ' oC to (mm itd. mogu biti upotrijebljeni na jedan od
sljedcca elva nacina:
a) prijedlog pa zatim zamjenica whom: to whom fur whom with vl'hom aLu:lul111. itd.
b) who na pocetku recenicc a na njenom kraju pojavi se odgovarajuCi prijedlog.
• Who is he working with? e With whom is he working?
e \Vhn did you give your money lQ.? e To wh.Qill did you give your money?
e Who is she waiting for? e For whmn is she waiting?
• ~ arc you proud of? • O[who111 are you proud?
e .whu is David quarreling with? • With whom is David quarreling?
• WhQ is the boss shouting m? • At whom is the boss shouting?
Whose
Moze se upotrijebiti i kao pricljev (ispred imenicc, daje odredi) i kao zamjenica (umjesto
neke imenice)
Pridjev: Zamjcnica:
• ~ bicycle is in front of our ,house? • Whose is the book on the table?
• Whose father has already come? • Whose are those books?
• Whose answer was incorrect? • Whose \vas this suitcase?
• Whose brother gave you this? • Whose were those lost books?
What
Upotrebljava se dvostruko i kao pridjev i kao zamjenica. Aka se upotrijebi kao pridjev
onda znaci koji (koja, koje, kakav, kakva, kakvo, kakvi)? , a ako se upotrijebi kao
zamjenica onda znaci: sta? What kao upitni pridjev se upotrebljava za lica, iivotinje i
stvari.
Pridjev:
• What city is she fulm? (iz kog grada) • What food do you like?
• What news do you have for me? • What advice can you give me?
• What kind of films do you like? • What animal do you like most?
• What questions have you been asked? • What girl told you that news?
• What time do you go to school"
Zamjenica:
• .w.hill is he doing there'?
• What did you want to ask me?
• What would you like to tell him?
• What are you looking for?
• What made him stop smoking?
• What are you writing about?
• Wb.n1 did you do yesterday morning?
• What do you want me to buy for you?
• What happened yesterday in your city?
e What have you promised me?
• :1Yh.il1 made you do such a stupid thing?
• What did you hUli yourself with?
What se tlvijek upotrebljava kada se zeli saznati necije zanimanje, profesija, zvanje.
• What is your brother-in law? • What was your grandmother?
163
G What is her daughter? e What is your brotber's wife'?
What 5t Cesto u uzvicnim (usklicnim) recenicama
• What a question! • What questions! • What ans\versl
• What manners! • What a pretty woman! • \Vhat! Nothing for lunch!
• What a shame! • What have they done! • What a promise!
o YO/hut a surprise! • JYl:ill1 mistakes! • tragedy!
Napoll1clla; U l/sklicl1im re(\:'l1ic(lmaje obavczlIo lIpotreba ncodreclcnog (;/al1(1 ako iza
upitnc za17?jenice what slUed! illlcnicu lfjednini. Akoje imcnica U IIIfloz!ni
nc upotrebljava se lIijcdall od (;/UI1()vo.
Which
Upotrebljava se u dvostrukoj funkciji: kao pridjcv (isprcd imcnicc) i kao zamjenica. U
upilnom znacenju ova rijec se moze upotrijebiti za lica, zivotinjc i stvari. Odnosi se na
pitanja kojima se utvrditi izborjednog lica,jcdnog predmeta,jedne zivotiqje.
Pridjev:
• Wbich bus goes to the Bronx? Which book do you like most?
• Which way shall we go? question was impolite?
• \Vhich answer was so rude? Which boy has told you that?
• Which tie do you prefer: the red one or the blue one?
Zamjcnica:
• Which do you like more: jam or butter?
• Which of them was here yesterday?
• Which would you prefer?
• is less dangerous?
• Which of thel1l gut the scholarship?
3. Pokazlle zamjcnice
Which would you like to have'?
'll!JlliJJ is his girlfriend?
'll!JlliJJ of them asked you that"
NajceSce pokazne zamjenice u engleskomjeziku su this, that. This i thal imaju obi ike
za mnozinu koji se po svojil11 forl11alnil11 obiljezjima razlikuju od jednine: these, those.
Such, the same, one (ones), the former, the lattcr takoder l110gu biti upolrijebljcne iii
kao pokazne zamjenice iii kao pridjevi iii mogu imati te obje funkcije. Such j the same.
the fQrmer the latter imaju istl Qblik ujednini i u mnozini dQk Ql1h ima ul11nozini oblik:
ones.
This that, these those, mogu biti upotrijebljeni i kaQ z811ljenice i killLpridjevi. Na nas
jezik se prevode sa: ovaj (taj), ova (ta), ovo (to), ovi (ti), ove (tc) i onaj, ana, ono, oni,
one,
Prid.icvi:
.. This nOlebook belongs to my friend .
.. Thcsb: notebooks belong to my friend .
.. That bus over there is old.
• Thili homework is incorrect.
Ibis building is very old.
e Thai day was a rainy day.
.. I cannot flnish it t11i2 week .
.. I cannot finish it during these two weeks.
Zamjt'nica:
• What do ynu think of this?
• That cannot be a very good idea.
• ThM must be very Important to you.
.. Those were our happy days.
• Those were my best memories.
• This. is small compared to 1b.ill.
.. Those busses over there are old.
. Ih= buildings are very old.
• Those days were rainy days .
• Ihlsjs a very good idea.
.. Ihat cannot be true, I hope.
.. Yes, tlmLis important to me .
.. These are terrible comments.
• What do you think ofthcs
k
ones?
• She tells me !llli. and that.
Such kao pokazni pridjev znaci takav, takva, takvo, takvi, takve a U odredenim
kontekstima moze znaciti i veliki velika vcliko, vclikc. Kad se such upotrebljava sa
imcnicama u jednini testa se upotrebljava ncodreaeni clan a, an llZ imenicu, ali se taj
neodredeni Clan upotrebljava iza rijeci 'weI! n(' Such moze imati i funkciju
zamJel1lce.
Such kao pridjev:
o Sllcl! a man cannot be reliable,(takav) • I am in s.u.clLn hurry,
• Many students don't like stich books, .. He is sllch 11 bad boy,
o Such fun cannot be forgotten, 0 Such accidents happen.
o Such books are both interesting di:ld popular. • Such-fL terrible mistake.
o Such mistakes can be neither forgotten nor forgiven.
• Such assumptions may be misleading.
Zarnjenica:
o Such was not my hope,
• S!.!£h were not my expectations. • S:u£h was his "brilliant" ielea.
o So, S1!.£h is your attitude? • .s.urn was not my desire.
o The problem was such that we couldn't solve it.
o The blunder was sllch that you should be ashamed.
Kada se iza such upotrijebi rijec H5, onda ta konstrukcija znaCi: kao 11a primjer.
• Students such those who were late yesterday, are not responsible enough.
• Employees such as office administrators and computer programmers should go to
our manager.
165
Same
Ova rijec IIloze bit! upotrijebljena kao pridjev i kao zamjenica. U oba slucaja obavezna
je upotreba odredenog clana ispred rijeCi same.
Same kao pridjev:
• The same man wanted to see you yesterday.
• That is book I have read.
G That must be the same situation.
Same kao zamjenica:
• It is all the saIIle to me whatever you decide.
• She is the same as her sister.
• Who can do the same?
One - Olles
Is this the same: boy?
I like the same color as you do.
We face the same problem.
She told me the
That is the same to us.
He has done the same.
Cesto se iza pokaznih zamjenica this. that iIi iza odredenog clana the upotrijebi zamjenica
da se izbjcgne ponavljanje imellicc. To isto vaii i za pokazne zamjenice u mnoiini
those ali se onda koristi zamjenica
• She prefers this book than lIill1...Qru;.
• Will you ask this question, not lIill1...Qru;?
• Ihis is my book and lIill1...Qru; is yours.
• That is my chair and is yours.
• I'll put on the blue I-shirt and you should put on !ill; yellow =.
• Please give me the green notebooks and give my son the
• These are our seats, and those ones are yours.
• Those must be your tickets and these ones here are ours.
The fonner - the latter mogu biti upotrijebljeni i kao pridjevi i kao zamjenice. Znacenje
zamjenice (pddjcva) the {(mucr jc prvopomcnuti, ovaj prvi (prva, Jl(YQ) a the latter
znaci onaj drugi (ona druga, ono drugo), drugopomenuti (-a, -0).
The fonner - the latter kao pridjev:
• He can play two different games: basketball and football.
• He plays the former game much better. He is not so good at the latter.
• She studies both Physics and Chemistry. She likes the former subject better. But,
of course she has to read many books on the latter as welL
The former - the latter kao zamjenica:
• She traveled to England and to Spain. She liked the former more than the latter.
.. "How many students attended the class?" Only two students: Bob and Mary
to spend some time together with the latter.
.. Two men were very impOliant in her life: Mike and John. The fonner was her
father and the latter her husband .
• The President telephoned the ambassador; the fanner was in Washington D.C,
the latter in Sarajevo .
• She bought a suit and a dress. The former was far more expensive than the latter.
4. Odnosne (relativne) - zamjenice - pridjevi
Odnosne zamjenice su: who, whose, whom, which, that, what. Po svom obliku who,
whose, whom, which, what su identicni sa upitnim zamjenicama ali su im funkcije u
recenici potpuno razliCitc pa se razlicito i prevode na nas jezik.
Odnosna zamjenica that je po obliku identicna sa pokaznom zamjenicom that, ali
funkcije su im bitno razlicite.
Who - whom
Upotrebljavaju se samo kao zamjenice u vezi sa lieima na koja se adnose. Ne mogu se
upotrijebiti 1<ao pridjaL Prevode se sa koji, koja, koje, koji, koga, itd. Ne srnijemo ih
poistovijetiti sa upitnim zamjenicama who i whom koje su po obliku identicne sa
odnosnim, ali po funkciji znatno se razlikuju. Who i whom se odnose samo na liea.
• This is a student who doesn't like to study.
• Who was the man who asked you?
• These are girls who were absent last time.
o He is the one who did it.
o Is this the girl m phoned you last night?
o Are they people lYhlLhelped you?
o Are they the boys m didn't want to come?
• Is this the girl m often cries?
.. Those wllil believe so, are wrong,
• Those :IYb.u did it, are criminals.
• Is this the woman Ylhu wanted to see me?
• The man who was with you in the park is my good friend.
• The policeman Wmn you asked this question was very polite,
o The girl whom you met yesterday is my sister.
• That is the man 1Y.hill:n r gave some money to yesterday.
Napomena: U govornom engles/com jeziku (namCilo tl Americi), sve vise se wnjesto
whom upotrebljava who. Odnosna zamjenica whom se maze iZQstaviti ako
je ona direktni objekat ili aka je 1J!lm.mpovezan sajednom od prepozicUa.
U tom slucajll razliCiti prijed/azi: about to (or fipm at itd. koj; su
zastupljeni u recenici pojavljllju se na njenom kraju. Ova pojava,
karakteristicna za govorni jezik, j o , ~ nije posta/a standardna gramaticka
norma ..
167
e Is this the girl YOli are waitingjQr?
-Is tMs the man you have been talking ai2QJJJj
• This is my jh'elld J wrote a letter {Q.
• The 'womwl1 taaaiked with lives in that house.
e The man J got the money jj:Qm is my neighbOl:
Whose
Upotrebljava se samo 1«10 pridjev, a maze se odnositi na lica,zivotinje i stvari.
• Is that the girl vvhosc mother called you last night?
• This is the student ~ I : w . s . e books YOlt found yesterday afternoon.
• A book ~ pages are so dirty cannot be minco
• That must be the house whose roof needs repairing.
• Those men and women ~ children are so irresponsible should do something
about it.
• The cat J:YhQ.s.e tail is injured is in the backyard.
• The chair whose one leg is broken, cannot be used.
• She has a nice dog ~ name is Rover.
Umjesto whose moze se upotrijebiti odnosna zamjeoica of which kada se odnosi oa
stvarl ili objekte.
• The book, the pages of which are dirty, is not mine.
• The chair, of which one leg is broken, cannot be used.
• The house, the roof of which needs reparing, is just down the street.
• My brother tried an overcoat the sleeves of which were too long.
Which
Odnosna zamjenica odnosi se na ±ivQtinje stvari i apstraktne poimove. Ona nema
selektivno znacenje kakvo ima upitna zamjenica which. To zna6i ona se ne odnosi na
izbor jednog od vise postojccih predmcta. Odnosna zamjenica w.hkb. moze biti
upotrijebljen i kao pridjev i kao imenica. Pridjevska upotreba relativne zamjenice which
je znatno lje(ta. .
Pridjev:
• l-Ie was waiting for uS for two hours after which time he went home.
Zamjenica:
• Take the book Yi.hiJ;h is on the table.
• The apartment in YLh.icll we live is large.
• That is the room in ~ he studies.That is the dog which you were looking for.
• Take the book which is yours.
• We will take the things M1kh are ours.
• Is that the building in which he lived?
• That is the cat which she spoke about.
e The room which needs cleaning is on the second 1-100r.
Relativna zamjenica which merle se ocinositi i na cijelu prethodnu recenicu. Tada se
which prevodi na nas jezika rijecju: sIn
Kad se which odOWd on cijc!u prethodnl! potrcbno ie ispred which napisatj

• No decision has been made yet, which is a good thing.
• Some words have simple spelling, is good for liS students.
• You don't know him, is your big disadvantage.
• He works seven days a week, whir.h he hates.
• Half of our town was destroyed in the war, which is more than terrible.
Napomena 1: Akoje 'v\!Mch Ilpotr{/ebljen kao dire/ani ,onda se on maze izostaviti.
• The dog I saw in the street was huge.
• The city we live in is velY clean.
• The books we saw are Vel)' nice.
• These backpacks ·we bought yesterday are Fel)) modem.
Napomena 2: Ako .Ie sa re/ativnom zamjenicom lljJotrUebljen neki od prUedloga, onda
se on ne izostavlja vee ,I,'C na krajl! recenice,
• This is the house in wMch my brother lives.
• This is the hOllse my brother lives i.tL
• ThaI is the thing obollt which J talked.
• That is the thing I talked about.
-It :\' the ve,y news/or 11'hich 1 was waiting,
- the vefY news I ,"vas waiting/ill:..
Napomena 3: Umjesfo relativne utn(jenice which sa prUed/ogo!1l ('esto se moze
lIpotrUebiti prilog 'where iii when,
- The restaurant at which we often have dinner is closed now
- The restaurant wh!?re we often have dinner is closed now,
- The day on which you don 'f work is Sunday.
- The day If.!J.mYOll dOli '( work. is Sunday.
That
Relativna zamjenica that odnosi se na Iica, stvari, zivotinjc i apstraktne imenice, That se
moze upotrijebiti samo kao zamjenica i liZ ovu relativnu zamjenicu se ne mogu
upotrebljavati prijedlozi, That se najcesce upotrebljava iza supertativa, iza izraza: llil..
everything, much nothing little.
169 'I
Ako sc upotrijebi kao direktni objekat tlJiJl moze sc izostavitL
• She was the greatest actress tl.w1 was ever born.
• He is the man t.!.J.m 1 have supported for a long time.
• The book Lb.iJ1 you gave me yesterday is velY interesting.
e The dog 1.lJ.SJ1 \VC saw last night was pretty dangerous.
• The tragedy fllal happened here cannot be forgotten.
• They were at school and they noticed I1.QJ:hing ll.w1. could surprise them.
e Eyerything rhal you see here is on sale.
vThere was ~ in her neighborhood tl.w.1. was not ready to help her.
I.lill1 se ne upotrebljava ako postoji samo jedna osoba ili predmet na koju se that odnosi.
U takyim slucajevima upotrebtjava se who (za liea) i which (za predmete stvari) umiesto
lllli1
• His mother, Will is a manager, goes to work by her car.
e The World Trade Center, which was well known everywhere, was destroyed.
Izostnvlianle zamjenicc that (that kao dircktni objekt)
• The boy I met yesterday is my friend's son.
e These people we met in the street were my good friends,
What
Relativna zamjenica what maze se upotrijebiti samo onda, ako u gJavnoj recenici nije
pomenuta imenica na koju se zamjcnica what odnosi. Ova zamjenica odnosi se na
cijelu prethodnu informaciju (poruku) i zapravo znaCi ono sto, to sto.
• Ask me what you want to know,
• Please tell us ~ t you have heard,
• I'll show you ~ I have received. Do.llfu!1 the doctor wants you to do.
o I-Ie knows lYhnlis good for him. ] don't know lYlillt you know.
• He didn't want to do.w.llill he was asked to.
o They told me lYllli! ] had not known before.
• Nobody knew what would happen in the near future,
5. Neodredene zamjenice ~ pridjevi
Neodredene zamjenice cine veliku grupu zamjenica koje se mogu podijeliti u dvije
5kupine: proste i sloZene Za obie skupinc jc karakteristi¢no da oznacavaju neodreden
broi. neodredenu kolicinu neodredeno lice Njih najces6e prevodimo sa ikoliko, ista,
svako, 5vaka, svake, svasta, nista, iCiji, niciji. Upotrebljavaju se i kao zamjenice (izuzev
~ ) i kao pridjevi (izuzev none. ones)
Proste neodredene zamjenice (pridjevi) su: some, any, one, eVelY, each, all, none, both,
either, neither, no, none, other.
Some - any
Some se upotrcbljava u potvrdnim i (ljede) u upitnim reccnicama. Kada je upotrijebljen
u funkciji pridjeva prevodi se sa nesto, nekoliko. Maze se upotrebljavati sa brojivim
imenicama i tad a zna6i nekoliko, nesto malo, mali broj, a kada oznacava nebrojive
imenice tada se prvodi sa malo,
Any upotrcbljava se u upitnim iIi u odrecnim (i ponekad u potvrdnim) recenicama. U
upitnim rccenicama illl.)!. znaCi imalo, ijedan, neki, u odricnim znaci: nekakav, imaio,
ikakav, a u potvrdnim reccnicama se illl)!. prevodi sa bilo kaji, !TIa koji. Moze se, kao i
some upotrijebiti kao pridjev iIi kao zamjenica.
PridJcv:
• We bought some sligar yesterday.
• Who needs some money?
• He needs some time to recover.
• I have books at home.
• May I give you fish?
• Do you have
• He didn't buy = sugar yesterday.
• We haven't made ll!:!X mistake.
• She hasn't read any newspaper today
• Any student can understand it.
• Any weekend will sllit me perfectly.
ZamJenica:
• agreed, some didn't agree.
• Sm:.u.Q. always come on time.
• liked the conceli, didn't.
He eats lill1l1!:; bread for breakfast.
He lived in Mostar for s.un:l.Q time.
Bring fruit with you.
Can you lend me books?
He has SQl1lk work to do.
Dic! you make illlY mistakes?
Do you need ililY money right now?
Have you drunk = alcohol today?
Did he hear = news?
Please, don't make ill!):. noise here.
Give me pencil from this table.
I will take .s..ums;: more.
Smn.s;: are almost always late.
went home early.
• have bad luck, have good luck.
Any kao pridjev:
• Take .anx color you want to.
• He can he wants.
• Give me ill1Y pencil, please.
Any Imo zamjcnic:l:
fs there anx more milk?
Is there 1llY-present for me here?
Are there am:. new students here?
• What are you looking for? For some milk. I'm afraid, there isn't IDlY.
• I'm looking for some more cookies. Sony, there
• Give me some cheese. Son"y, there isn't l.ll1Y...
• Mistakes, if (there are) any, will be corrected.
• I'd like some more fish. There isn't ilIl-Y, I'm afraid.
• Does .illlY. of you have the English grammar here?
171
One - olles
One llpotrcbljava se sanw ujednini, a 1I mnozini. PrevoJi sc 11<1 nas jezik bezlicno:
sc. U tall. vim okolnostima one ozoacava general no bilo koje lice i moze se prevoditi sa:
covjek. Qne zajedoinu i ones za mnozinll se upotrebljavaju kao zamjenicc cia sc izbjegne
ponavUanjc prethodne imenice, ili prethodnih imenica. One, ponekad, ujJotrebljava se
u funl<ciji pridjcva. Kao one (csto sc koristc kao kontrasti zamjcniCHml1: the
01 her another.
Zamjenica:
• never knows such things. • should always leU the truth.
*' One must learn all about it. • One has to be patient with people.
• f-Ie didn't want the big dog, but the .
.. I like the green book, not the red .
.. The green books look better than the red ones .
.. That shirt "vas too big and this ll.llS: is too smalL
• I saw two students. Qnh. was very tal! and the other very short.
• Give me another pencil, I have is not good.
*' Two busses have just come. Q.ru;: is early, 1'he is in time.
moze znaCiti neki. izvjesni.
• On one occasion I told him all I knew,
• One cloudy day we went for a walle
.. Martha Smith called me yesterday.
• On one winter morning I \..vent out early.
Every - each
Evel:)! upotrebljava se isJdjuCivo kao pridjcv (ispred imenice), nikad kao zamjenica,
dok se upotrijebiti i !cao pridjev i kao zamjenica. Every znaci svaki (svaka,
svako) bez izuzetka. Upotrebijava se U okoloos1ima kada se odnosi n<1 svakog iIi na sve
zajedno u grupi (dvoje iIi vise, dva ili vise) ako svi clanovi (dijelovi) grupe imaju neku
zajednicku karakteristiku, zajednicko svojstvo.
Each znac! svako pojedinacno u grupi, svaki clan grupe pojedinacno.
• EYm word I wrote is true, *' He works day this week.
• Who plays tennis every Sunday?
student should study day.
• recommends this. • We enjoyed eve!:)! minute .
.. EYm member ormy family works hard. • He drinks coffee morning.
• Take this medicine single night before going to bed.
172
Every resta se upotrebljava u vclikom broju fraza, idioma.
• kY'{;IX-Qth£uUl.)': (sv"ki drugi dan); every nm\' <1nd then (povremeno);
e She had £,Yery reason. to do it (lrnalaje puno ra/loga; Imalaje puno pravo)
o Every ten 'years (svake des etc godine,jednom II dc-set godina);
o ['Try fiv(.;..milcs (we had to rest every five
• Take this medicine kY .. hours (svakih sest sati.)
Each kao pridjev:
• Each student has to do it.
• :Each page of the book is clean.
• That costs five dollars piece.
E!lCh IUlO zamjenica
• E.ncll. of you will get a chance.
• Ten dollars QIl.Q./L
• Each should pay two dollars.
e Each and eyery one of you ( us I them)
No - none
Each member should pay ten dollars.
Each book must be paid fOL
1. paid $55 each jacket.
Ew,;ll oCthem will work today.
Each should arrive on time.
Stand next to each other.
must pay at least eight dollars.
;'\'0 upotrebljava se samo kao pridjcv, a 110ne samo low zamJcnica i ne upotrebljava se
sa imenicom. !::/.Q znaci nijedan i zamjenjuje izraz not an}! not a.
Uz [lQl1.£... maze se upotrijebiti glagol u jednini ili II mnozini zavisno od konteksta t;j. ad
cinjcnice da li se 11011(" odnosi
.. I have jlQ book here.
najedan iii na vise predmeta, najedpu iIi na viSe osoba .
• There was no cbild here.
.. We accept no orders from you.
• You'll get no chocolate today.
• of them knew what to do.
• us could comc yesterday.
• of your friends came.
• There were none here on Saturday.
• of this is W01ih buying.
All
NQ person should do it
We bad no lecture on Sunday .
There has been no snow this winter.
NQ cakes for you, you eat too much.
of these things can be used.
He received of your messages.
I will have none of it.
None of them were hurt.
None have been wounded.
Moie se upotrijebiti kao pridJcv i kao zamJcnica. Kac!a imn funkciju pddjeva illl
oznacava iIi kolicinu i prevodi se sa: say, cia, cijeli, cijelu itd.; iii broj kada se prevodi sa
svi. Upotrijebljcn da oznaci broj isprcd imenica u mnozini flll zahtijcva da i glagol bucle
u mnozini.
173
Pridjev:
e We stayed here .aU day long.
• He spent nllhis money in OIle day.
• .6-11 students can understand this .
.. AlLterrorists have been punished.
e All members are asked to do it.
• Ll1l children need love.
ZamjeniC:l:
.. They arc illl mine.
o Have fIlLof you done that?
o All of them liked that lecture.
.. All hated these terrorists.
e All food must be sent today.
e He hated fill women.
.. Did you sleep ill these nights?
.. Did you write all the letters?
.. That is all, my friends .
.. It's all the same to me.
• AlLhavc come in time .
• He threatened them all.
Napomena 1. Aka all oznacava sasvim odrc{tenu koliCinu necega ili odrcaen braj necega,
onda se ispred imenice ufJotrebljava odreaeni Clan.
.. All the bread in the house has been eaten .
.. All the students [fllllY class have come in time .
.. All the/rult rve picked this morning must be sold today.
o All the boys like to play Jootball. All the girls learn to dance.
Napomena 2: Kada se iza a.J1 lipatrijebi prijedlog of, anda iza tog prijedloga slijedi
jednina iii I1ll1oiina.
• All a/them have been here. • We have to read all of it.
• All of these classrooms G.J:£. clean.
o All ~ f the boys..{2.igJ;gdJootball yesterday.
• All oJthe blackboard i£jilled.
o All of the milk!J.as. gone.
• All of his jl-iends lJ!Ql1f.,lo do the sallie
• All of the junk ~ to be thrown ({'way.
Both
Moze biti upotrijebljen i kao pridjev i kao zamjenica. Prevodi se sa: oba, obje, oboje, i
jedan i drugi; i jedna i druga; i jedno i drugo. Moze se upotrijebiti za lica i za stvad.
Glagol uz ovaj pddjev (zamjenicu)je uvijek u mnotini.
Pridjev:
• B.Q.th. girls were sick at that time. • Both parents were very happy.
o !iillh bedrooms have been cleaned. o !iillh buildings were destroyed.
• Have you used b.uth rooms? o He has paid for both shirts.
• Has he explained llillJJ rules? • They called b.il.tlJ...childrenthat night.
Zamjenica:
• Both wanted to say something.
e Have you seen M!h of them?
• Have lllllh.. afthem been graded?
Iillth expected some presents.
B.illh are very well right now.
Both were repaired yesterday.
Napomena: Aka se zamjenica hath lIpotrijebi izmeall dva pridjeva i spaja veznikom !111il.
onda se takva konstrukcija prevodi sa: isto tako ... kao;ne samo." vee- i..
• This dress is both cheap and good.
• This gentleman is both strong and brave.
• She is both clever and pretty.
Either - neither
Mogu se upotrijebiti kao pridjevi i kao zamjenice. E.i1hcr se prevodi sa: bilo jedan, bilo
drugi; bila jedna, bila druga; bilo jedno bilo drugo. Upotrijebljeni glagol uz ti!lJ.cr iIi
neither mora biti u jednini. Kad se upotrijebi zamjeniea (pridjev) glagol mora
biti u potvrdnom obliku, jer nri.!.hsa: po svojoj prirodi saddi u sebi negaciju.
Pridjev: either
• You may have either book you want. Either solution can be useful.
• E.i.!hg boy can help me. Either computer is very good.
• He will read newspaper.
• I have not accepted your excuse in ri.tb.Jd case.
• Either parent can come to school.
Zamjenica: either:
• Either of them can come to see me.
• Have you seen either of them?
• You may take either of them.
Either will serve the purpose.
I won't buy either of them.
Did you write to either of them?
Napomena: Kad se either upotrijebi na krajll recenice i kad se hpred either napise
zarez, onda telj either nije nl zanu'enica nl vee prilog sa znacenjem
takoae isl0 taka i (nO iG' i (nj) on. IjYOlf don't write, I ·won 'I, eithel:
• if she doesn't go, I "viiI not go, eithel:
• He will not tell YOIl rhe truth, eithel:
Pridjev neither:
• Neither film is my cup of tea.
• Neither solution is good for us,
• He bought tic there.
answer is quite correct.
Neither plan is acceptable.
• Neither employee has ever been absent.
• I have accepted your excuse in neither case.
175
Zuntjenica neither:
.. or us liked the fIlm.
o Nei1l.l£r will be used in this situation.
• Neither of them knows German.
Other
Neither will serve the purpose.
Nc.itlli:Lis possible right now.
I approve neither of these actions.
Moze sc upotrijcbiti kao pridjcv i kao zamjcnica. Prcvodi sc sa drugi (druga, drugc), He
taj (ta, to, te). Other moze se upotrijebiti i sa odredenim i sa neocireoenim cianom. Ako
se upotrijebi neodreoeni Clan ondn se on pise lIviick zaiedno sa (pridievQm)
£l.tOO.
Prid.iev:
• Please sho\-v me another tie.
• He is talking to the other woman.
• In other words: we must do it.
• He came to see us the other day.
• He wants to read some other newspapers.
Zamjenica:
• Others have tried it in vain.
• Will you give me the other, please?
• Consult the others about it, too.
• If it's not one thing,it's another.
Can you ask me another question?
I want to take the book.
He was sitting on side.
On the other hand, he was wrong.
Vole must believe to each
The other will be very usefuL
Why don't you show me the other?
• I won't take this book, give me the other over there.
Zamjenica i pridjev other upotrebljava se u viSe razlicitih fraza: every ojher day. each
other. one another. the other day, the other morning the other two no other than (niko
drugi ncgo), other th<U1.J.lli!t (osim toga), any other than (bilo koji samo ne .. ) something
(taka nesto).
Napomena: Zamjenica Q./J.J.sa. i!1la i genitivlli oblik U 10m s/ucajll se zal11jenici doda
apostrof i ".'I' ".
• The ane brother waas a dad()!;
• What was the other :S' professioll?
• Others! problems can make mefeel unhappy.
• The two brothers sometimes il1tel/el'ed in eachother :s' business.
6. SIozcnc neodredenc zamjenice
Dvije podgrupe slozenih neodrec1enih zamjeniea meciusobno se razlikuju na osnOVI
cinjenice da Ii se odnose na liea iii na stvari. Zamjenice koje zamjenjujulice (osobu)
176
grade Se 'ill -{tnt -If; 1";\';'f<i."U
zamienjcu. SlDzcne neodredenc L3.mjenice koje tieu stY3.ri U'1T'CJUKt':.l) \\ \){'C ::'\ ,\j \lbhk
dodavanjem nastavka -thing na odgoyaraju¢u prostu neodreGenu zamienlcu
Slozenc neodredene zamjenice za ljude su: somebody - ill1.Yl1.llilv -- anyone,
nobody - no one everybody everyone a za predrnete: something, UQJhing,
everything
Somebody - someone
Neodredene zamjenice za ljude pojedinacno prevode se na nas jezik sa neko, Cueki
Q.Q.yjek, neka Zen a neko diietet Ove dvije zamjenice upotrebljavaju se iskhuCivo tl
Qotvrdnim i lIpitnim nikad U oc/riCnim reCenicama
Potvrdnc rcccnice:
• She had to talk to someone (somebody) about her problem.
• Somebody (someone) must have some idea about it.
• There is someone (somebody) waiting for you.
• Somebody (someone) must do it as soon as possible.
• She was not alone, I think. Somebody (someone) was with her.
• I-lave you asked somebody (someone) to help you?
• I'm sure somebody (someone) made a big mistake.
• Was there somebody (someone) to meet you at the station?
• Somebody (someone) will have to pay this bill.
Upitne recenice:
• Did she talk with somebody (someone) about her problem" ( ... s nekim)
• Has somebody (someone) been waiting for me? ( ... neko)
• Did somebody (someone) call me this morning?
• Do you think somebody (someone) has already bought our products? ( ... neko)
• Do you really think that somebody (someone) will pay this bill?
Napomena: Somebody i someone imaiu genitivni oblik sa apostrofom i "s" . rada, ove
zamjenice oznacavqju pripadanje neodretlenom Covjeku (ieni, djetetu) i
upotrijeb(iene Stl ili II fimkciji
• That must be somebody 'S' - someone S '
iii u funkciji pridjeva:
• J have taken mmebocb
'
:s· - wmeone book by mistake.
Anybody - anyone
Ove zamjenice mogu biti upotrijebljene u upitnim, u odricnim i II potvrdnim recenicama.
U upitnim recenicama one znace nclill... i.kQ, II odricnim: n.ikQ, ika.. a u potvrdnim se
177
prevodi sa: rna ko (rna koji. koja koje), bOo ko (koji koja koje) iko (ikoji ikoja
ikl!jll
Upitne:
• Have you already seen anybody (anvone)? C" .nekog)
• I am in a big trouble, can anybody (anyone) help me? (neko)
• Will anyone (anybody) travel with you to the United States?
• Would you like anybody (anyone) to go with you there? ( ... da neko)
• Has anybody (anyone) repaired myoid bicycle? ( ... ncko .. .iko)
• Do you know anybody (anyone) in this town? (ikoga,,)
Odricne:
• We have not seen anybody (anyone) in the hall. (nikog ... nikoga)
• I have not expected anybody (anyone) to help me in the current situation.
• I don't think that anybody (anyone) will travel with me to the U.S.A. ( . .iko, neko)
• He wouldn't like anybody (anyone) to go there with him.
• She did not expect that anybody (anyone) would repair that old bicycle. ( .. iko)
Potvrdne recenice:
• Anybody (anyone) could do such a thing. ( ... svak, bilo ko)
• That's not heavy. Aoybody (anyone) could carry it easily. ( .. bilo ko, svak, rna ko)
• Anybody (anyone) would be happy to get this wonderfuljob.( ... svak)
• Ask anybody (anyone) you want in our class about it. ( ... bilo koga)
• Anybody (anyone) in my family can travel with me to London. ( ... bilo ko ad .. )
Napomena: Anybody i anyone imaju i svoje genitivne oblike (apostroj' + s) i tada .'Ie
prevode sa: bilo ciji, iciji.
• Whose book is this? I don ~ know. It could be anvbody's Canvone H
• Did youjind anybody:S' (an vane '5') backpack here?
Everybody - everyone

Zamjenice: svako, svi upotrebljavaju se u potvrdnim i u upitnim recenicama, Glagoli
upotrijebljeui sa ovilll zarnjenicama su u engleskornjeziku uvijek ujednini, ali mi ih ua
nas jezik mozemo cesto prevoditi sa nasom rijeCi SY.i i, naravno, sa glagololU u mnozini.
Potvrdne reccllice:
• Everybody (everyone) knew that she would come on Sunday. (Svi su znali ... )
• Eve!:ybody (eyeryone) is expected to ask questions, (Svi su ocekivali,,)
• Of course, everybody (eyeryone) is welcome to our celebration.
• You know that eyel)lbody (eyeryone) can participate in the race,("svi..)
• We are all happy that everybody ( everyone) has come.
178
Upitne feeenice:
• Did everybodv (cvcryoneL understand my questions? C. svi . .razumjeli?)
• Does everyhody (Cvcl:yone) in this class have a TV set at home? (svako, svi)
• Was everybody (every.Q.D.h) pleased with her last visit?
• Did everyone (everybody) look forward to his coming here?
o Had evelybody (eyeryone) done this before 1 came in?
Napomena; EVe!ybocZv i eVe!yone imaju svoje gel1itivne ob/ike (apostrof - s).
o This is, of course, evervbodv:5 duty.
olt is (everwNle \') right to accept or to refuse it.
Nohody - no olle
Ove zamjcnicc uJ10trcbljavaju se samo U odrienim reeenicama, Posto u engleskqj reecnici
1110ie biti salTIO jcdna negacija, a posta su zamjcnice nobodv j 110 one po_svojoj prirodi
negacije, to S1.l glagoli u reeenicama sa nobodv no one uvijek u potvrdnom obliku.
(Zamjenica se pise odvojeuo kao dvije rijeei). Prevodi se na nas jezik rijecju:
nilm.
• There was nobody (no one) at home at that time. ( .. niko .. nikog)
• Nobody (no one) else has come to school today. (,.. niko,..)
e Unbelievable, nobody (no one) could answer my question conectly. ( ... niko ... )
• Really, I can see nobody (no one) in the street right now. (,..nikog ... )
• She talked with nobody (no one) about her recent problem. ( .. oi sa kim)
Napomena: Zamjenice nobodv i no one irnajll i svoje genitivne oblike (apostl'Of+s). One
su po prJl'Odl negacije, pa glagol upolrijebUen sa njima tI recenici
mora hili u potvrdn0111 obliku,
• She-says that nohQc(r:" (no one\') child is better than hers,
• I am quite positive, this is (no one 's>fault.
Something - nothing
Something upotrebljava se u potvrdnim i upitnim reeenicama. Prevodi se sa "nesto".ll
potvrdnim, "iSta" u upitnim recenicama. Zamjenjuje sarno predmete, ne i lica.
Potvrdne recenicc:
• I have somethint: interesting to show you,
e We are sure somethin!: must have happened to him.
• This poor baby was frightened by something (prepala se od necega)
• As he was very hungry we gave him something to eat.
o She has somethin!: exciting to tell you.
179
• I hear she has flu or something like that. (.,neSto .. taka)
Upitnc reCcnice:
Would you like something to eat or drink'?
• Do you have something interesting to show me?
G Has something bad happened to him there?
• \Vas the poor baby frightened by something?
• Did he tell you something exciting about it?
Nothingje po svojoj prirodi negacija, pa glagol u recenicama u kojimaje upotrijebljena
zamjenica n..Q1hing mora biti u potvrdnom obliku. Prevodi se na nas jezik sa: nista.
Upotrebljava se sal110 u odricnim recenicama a odnosi se na predmete (stvari).
• Don't ask me to do that: llillhlng will make me do it.
• There is nothing on the table right now.
• This means really M..th.i.ng. to me.
• The accused had M..th.i.ng. to say in his defense.
• There is M..th.i.ng. at all that you can usc.
Napomena: Zanijenica nothing se pojavlj1u'e If izvjesnim ustaljenim frazama: !.J.121l1ing
else nothi/1g at all little or nothing next to nothi/1g (or nothi!lg (Hza/ud).
(hell are nothing to us (Qnj l1am nUla lle .
Everything - anything
Everything upotrebljava se u potvrdnim, upitnim i odricnim recenicama. Prevodi se
nasom rijeci a zamjenjuje predmete, stvari.
Potvrdnc rcccniee:
• He is stubbom and he is convinced that he knows everything on this matter.
• You should tell me everything you know about it.
• She is v.ery curious and everything interests her.
• Many people say: money is everything but I don't think so.
• Evclything we had done then was quite wrong.
U pitne recenice
• Did he really know evecything there was to know about that?
• Shouldn't you tell me everything you know about it?
• Does she really want to know eyer:ything?
• Is money everything you need to be happy?
• Was everything you had done then, wrong?
Odricne recenice
• Of course, we cannot understand ever:ything we have just heard.
• I think money is not everythillgJhat makes me feel happy.
o Everything cannot be repaired after this terrible aggression.
• I shouldn't tell them everything I know about it.
Ocito je da veliki broj rijeCi moze u engleskom jeziku biti upotrijebljen u dvostrukoj
funkciji (ll funkciji zamjenica i u funkciji pridjeva) pa tu vazou Cinjenicll moramo imati
1I vidll kada prevodimo sa engleskog iii na engleski jezik.
181
VII PRILOZI
Gramatika engleskog jezika
'I
Prilozi su vrsta rijeCi koje su pridodate glagolima, pridjevima iIi drugim
prilozima da ih odrede, definisu (definiraju), da istaknu njihove osobine. U recenici:
"He will never forget this action" - n=je prilng i odreauje glagal (will forget). U
recenici: "They finished their job earlier than we did" - earlier je takode prilog ion
odreduje glagol: finished,
"You have 1illL many excuses" je primjer u kame prilog (ovdje 1QQ) odreduje pridjev
(many), U sljedeCim recenicama imamo isti slucaj: "IQQ few people have come to our
party" (too prilog odreduje pridjev few). This is llilt a difficult assignment. (negacija
not i sazeci -o't se smatraju prilozima premu klasifikaciji vrsta rijeci pa i ovdje
prilog not odreduje pridjev difficult. He is = tall. (Vel)' prilog ispred pridjeva tall).
U sljedecim recenicama potvrdit ce se da prilog maze odredivati (definisati) drugi
prilog.
• "He spoke velY well." (VelY je prilog i odreauje drugi prilog: well).
• "I have eaten quite enough." (Quite je prilog kao i enough koga quite poblize
odreauje.)
• Please listen especially carefully to my explanation. (Especially je prilog ispred
priloga carefully da ga deftnise).
• He is ill.l!!m completely prepared for his lecture. (Always prilog ispred priloga
completely)
1. Tvorba priloga
Veliki broj priloga u engleskom jeziku gradi se oct prictjeva taka sto se prictjcvu doda
nastavak -Iy.
.. successful
• fluent
.. quiet
• easy
• quick
• pretty
"nice
• bright
• beautiful
successfully
fluently
quietly
easily
quickly
prettily
nicely
brightly
beautifully
complete completely
soft softly
careful carefully
happy happily
stupid stupidly
cheap cheaply
glad gladly
slow slowly
terrible terribly
Dodavanjem nastavka -Iy na pridjev u pridjevu nastaje neke promjene.
a) pridjevi koji se zavrsavaju na y a prethodi im suglasnik m ~ j e n j a j u to y u i a onda
im se dada nastavak -ly.
185
G easy
.. busy
easily
busily
pretty
lazy
prettily
lazily
happy
sloppy
happily
sloppily
b) Takvih promjena y u nema kad pridjevu -y prethodi samoglasnik.
c) Pridjevi sa zavrsetkom na
nastavak -Iy.
dvostruko "I" (Il) gube jedno "I" kada im se dodaje
• full fully dull dully
d) Neki pridjevi koji se zavrsavaju na l11uklo -e gube kad se dada nastavak
Jx,.
• whole wholly
• simple simply
2. Podjcla priloga
true
miserable
truly
miserably
Priloge mozerno podijeliti na viSe grupa.
terrible
probable
terribly
probably
a) za naCin: somehow, perfectly, fl=.tly. well, fus.!, hru:d.ll.ll.i£kb',
gladly strongly, hililly, =fully, hl!ppjlx itd. Ovi prilozi odgovaraju na
pitanje how?
b) prilozi odredenog vrernena: today. noW yesterday tomorrow then. on Monday
mornjng in half an hour in the winter during breakfast. at noon. in the morning. at 7
o'clock itd. Ovi prilozi odgovaraju na pitanje when?
c) prilozi Ileodredenog vremena: generally, Q..fkn., .!J.S..!.lilll.,
sometimes, rarely occasionally. recently itd. 1 ovi prilozi oclgovaraju na pitanje when?
d) prilozi koji odrcduju stepen: Y.QIy, \QQ, =sIl, itd. Ovi prilozi
odgovaraju na pitanje: to what degree?
e) priIozi za mjesto: there, here over there. in the street. where outside clown. east
lip upstairs. inside at home at school in the middle of in the corner on the shelf on
the table itd. Ovi prilozi odgovaraju na pitanje where?
3. Poreaellje priloga
Prilozi porede se na isti nacin kao i pridjevi. Kompm',ativ priloga tvori se clodavanjem
nastavka -er, iii upotrehom priloga more ispred osnovnog oblika priloga. Prilozi
napravljeni od pridjeva dodavanjem nastavka -Iy postaju viSeslozni (izuzev priloga
186
early) pa stoga tvore komparativ kao i viSeslozni pridjevi. Earlyje u tom pogledu izuzetak
pa komparativ pravi nastavkom -cr.
Superlativ priloga tvori se isto leao i superlativ pridjeva pomoCli nastavka -est. ViSeslozni
prilozi i prilozi na -Iy tvore superlativ upotrebom priloga most. Izuzetakje prilog eaili
koji superlativ gradi nastavkom -est.
Ispred priloga 11 superlativu ne upotrebljava se odredcni CIa'n lmkav je slucaj u
superlativu pridjeva.
• hard harder hardest
• fast faster fastest
• early earlier earliest
• near nearer nearest
• deep deeper deepest
• laIC later latest
• often more often most oHen
• vagreeably more agreeably most agreeably
• promptly more promptly most promptly
• frequently more frequently most frequently
• gracefu II y more gracefully most gracefully
• quickly more quickly most quickly
• seriously more seriously most seriously
• I-Ie completed the exam more quickly than the others.
• She danced most gnlceCully.
• Mark practices more serimI.Sbc than Ann.
• She is an llilll:iUally smart player.
• Which of the students runs fastest?
• Ann runs much faster than Maria.
• Of all our guests, Mary lett ~
• She successfully completed her test.
• He can go more quiclili:. than that.
• We played more often than they.
• They come now more frequently
• They were digging deeper and deepcr.
• She came to liS lllilliLJlIQ!1l.l21.lY..
Do it lTIOre slowly. please.
She speaks English flucntly.
He did everything successfully
• He opened the window most quietly. He sings most b e a u l ~ .
• He drives his new car most carefully. They work most energetically.
• She dances more gracefully than before. I can think more clearly now.
~ Does he speak English more Huently now'?
• After our last experience we look at life more enthusiastically.
• Our players are now most physically fit for the match .
.. Do they write their reports more neatly these days?
187
Nepraviino poredcnje priloga
Izvjcstan broj priloga odstupa od gOl11jih pravila za tvorbu komparativa i superlativa pa
se za ajih kaze da imaju nepravilnu komparaciju.
• badly worse worst
• ill worse worst
.. well better best
• little
• much
• far
• late
.. near
less
morc
farther (further)
later
nearer
least
most
farthest, furthest
last
nearest, next
• That is extremely bad. Nothing could have happened.
• He would like to know lJJ.Q.[S:;: about the whole situatiol1 .
.. Could he go any No, he was really too exhausted to go any farther (fUither).
• Our team played bettcr than the other team.
• I'm sure our team played of all the teams in our town.
• They did vet:)! well when they decided to participate.
• Who is and who is playing
Napomena: Postaji relativJ1a veliki braj pridjeva sa l1a Te pridjeve ne
smijemo mijdati sa prilozima koji slIlIapravljeni od pridjeva t/astavkom-
ly. PricUevi na -ly: cowardly (kukavickij,/onely( usamljen), earthly
(zemaljski, ovozema(jskij, Fiendly (pnjatefjslci), kindly (ljubazllo), lively
(iivahan), lovely (mia, Ijubak), manly (hrabm) .
• 1'11/ sure that is a cowardly lie,
• He wall ted to enjoy all
• They have friendlv relations with us.
• All waiters werefi'iendlier this time.
4. Identiciiost oblika priloga i pridjeva
JJis./li.f!JJ.diJ:.. Jloice made meleel relaxed.
Her i.iJ!J:.b:. imagination sUlprises me.
He was the may! rriendlvperson.
a) Neki prilozi imaju identican oblik sa pridjevima. Upotreba imje razlicita,jer pridjevi
pojasnjavaju imenice a prilozi glagole, pridjeve i priloge.
Long. enough. hard. close. fast straight easy, late firm. direct far. early su rijeci koje
se bez ikakvih promjena oblika mogu upotrijebiti kao prilozi i kao pridjevi. Naravno,
funkcija u recenici im je razlicita.
IRR
Pridjev
• It is a long way from here to Sarajevo.
We need enc'u,;h time to do it.
He h..,." 2.. § ..::.:;.::,
• ,:-.:-.:c:-lt Zc.::.: rr;llrL
1 kno\\' 1S- \ cry hard work.
• He lives far from the center.
• That is an question.
• Here comes the early bird.
• My father is a lUk TV watcher.
• That was our firm decision.
• This is the direct train from Vienna.

The experiment win not last lmm..
It must be made hot <:ll'.ill;;h to bend.
H\s- lK'\\ "::"'.l "(t':\.\S
r..::.:,-",>
\\ Y(r:- h.;m.1C\ ('ry ...by.
F rom here I'll go dinxt to Sarajevo,
Take it q.:;)', don't hun)'.
\Vho goes to bed so
I-Ie goes to bed very late.
He stood firm in his demands.
• In the far corner of the room there is a chair.
b) Mali broj priloga koji su napravljeni nastavkom -ly moze biti upotrijebljen i kao
pridjev i kao prilog. Njimaje, ocito, oblik identican ali imje funkcija razlicita.
• I get daily papers. (dnevne novine- pridjev)
• Almost all important papers are being published lliJ.i.lx. (svakodnevno ... prilog)
• Our weekly salary is not bad at all. (sedmicna ... pridjev)
• Which magazines get (sedmicno .... priIog)
• My monthly rent is too high.( mjesecna stanarina ... (pridjev)
• He gets paid only I!l.llIllhl.:l. (mjesecno ... prilog)
5. Dvostruki oblik priloga
Ima nevelik broj priloga koji imaju po dva oblika od kojihje jedan identican sa pridjevom
a drugi napravljen pomocu nastavka -Iy. Cesto je kod takvih priloga znacenje razlicito
kad su im oblici razli6iti.
• My father works hard. (naporno)
• I-lis father hllllfu' works at all. (gotovo i ne radi)
• She lives quite near me.
• It was accident.(gotovo ... nesreca)
• She works !illillY-well. (prilicno .. )
• Yesterday she sang)2rQ.11ib:. (pjevala lijcpo)
• Has he.i.\llil come back? (upravo) Was he treated jllSllY? (pravicno)
• Who went to bed night? ( Ko je po sao na spavanje kasno?)
• Lately many important events have happened here. (u posljednje vrijeme .... )
.. They work high on the top of the house. ( Rade na visini... visoko)
• I h.ighly recommend him for this position. (posebno, svesrdno ga preporu6ujem ... )
• These scientists worked very h.ard to succeed. (naporno radili. ... )
189
• These facts were hill:dl.x..known. (Jedva da su se i znale te cinjenice)
• I haven't heard any news!.ill.clJ!. ( u posljednje vrijeme ... prilog)
• He came very ~ to his office. (kasno .. prilog)
6. Mjesto priloga u recenici
Red rijeci u engleskoj reccnici ima izuzetan znacaj. Ponekad znacenje cijele rccenicc
moze biti dijametralno suprotno samo zato s10 se promijenio red rijeci. U tom sklopuje
vazno znati i mjesto priloga u recenici.
NateIno prilog trcba da bude sto je moguce blize rijeci koju odreduje i pojasnjava (sto
je mogucc blize glagolu, pddjevu i prilogu kome je pridodat). Ali to je samo opste
pravilo koje ne tjesava sve nedoumice oko pravilnog smjcstanja priloga u recenici.
a) Alw je u rcccnici upotrijcbljen prilog za nacin onda on stoji neposrcdno iza glagola
ako reCenica !lema direktni objckat.
• If we work hard we will be successfuL Did he feci worse yesterday?
• He felt better yesterday.
• Our team played badly last Sunday.
• They danced beautifully last night. I didn't feel well last night.
Medutim, ako je u reccnici upotrijebljen direktni objekat onda se prilog za nacin stavlja
odmah iza tog objekta.
• My friend speaks German fluently.
• He wanted to close the windows softly.
• Did he pass his eX{)!l1 successfully?
• He drove his new car slowly.
• We wrote our homework neatly.
• They painted their room sloppily.
• She sang this song beautifully.
• I translated this sentence accurately.
Ipak prilozi za nacin sa nastavkom na -Jy mogu se upotrijebiti i ispred glagoJa kada
naroCito zelilUo da istaknemo prilog.
• I accurately translated this sentence.
• He slowly drove his car: it is quite new .
.. He quietly closed all the wind
• We carefully entered the room.
• She ~ a c c e p t e d my invitation.
• He quickly hid the ball.
b) Prilozi odredenog vrcmena upotrebljavaju se iii na samom pocetku ill na kraju
recemcc.
e Now you may go home. You may go home llillY.
" I will not go there. I will not go there
e Tonight I'm going out with my friend.
• I'm going out with my friend tonight.
.. Qn Saturday we played cards together .
.. We played cards together on Saturdfty.
Napomena 1. Aka se ujednoj recenici upotrijebi vise priloga za vrijeme, onda se Dr;/og
z{/ m(llljll vrpnlCIlS!w jedinjcu stavlia ispred lJri/of/a za vd/( vremewi/al
jediniClI.
-1 will meet YOIl CIt sjx 0 'clock in the evenjn?, 0/1 Monday.
• She was ho/'/1 ilu1J21iL i11J.222.
- Please, come Q.11J.be fint SU!1dav
Napomena 2: Kad je prilog za naCin upotrijebUen u pasivnoj recenici on se stavlja
izmedu odgovarajuceg oblika pO!nocnog glagola "to be" i participa
peliekta glagola kojije u recenici upotrijebljen. Drugi!n rijeCima prilog
za naCin u pasivnoj recenici se upotrebljava neposredno ispred participa
pelfekta ..
.. Our suggestion was strol1r:lv and euthlls'iastical/v supported
.. Her sister in-law lWts bml{y injured two weeks ago .
.. J have been serjolfs{y ,>varned not to do sitch a thing .
.. The child will be severelv Dllll;shed by his lathe,:
c) Prilozi neodretlenog vremena se upotrebljavaju ispred glavnog gJagola.
Aka je u recenici upotrijebljen glagol "to be", onda se prilog neodredeno!,! vremena
stayJja jza tog glagola. To isto vaii i za modalne (nepotpune) glagoie,jer se prilozi za
neodredeno vrijeme upotrebljavaju i iza glagoJa can, ma)', !nust.
• We JlsuaJiy have breakfast at seven. He always goes to work by bus.
• Maria never comes home after ten. I bed very late.
• They Q.[tQn to sec us. She occasionally phones me.
- We seldom go to the movie theatre. I often read at night.
• Our busses are usually crowded. They usually have dinner at home.
• We are often very tired in the afternoon.
• They are busy.
• You cftn always come to see me,
.. I am usually at home on Saturday .
.. We have often been there.
He must never do such a thing again.
They may sometimes leave the class.
She is generally a responsible person .
191
1
Medutim ako su pomo6ni gJagol "to be" i l110dalni g!agoli (can, may, might, must itd)
poscbno istaknuti i nagiaseni, onda se prilozi za neodre(1eno vrijeme upotrebljavaju
ispred tih glago\a.
• He often can say such stupid things.
• He sometjmes can be careless.
• He generally !llil.Y. come in the morning.
• I often might call you in your office.
• They work and they usually are busy.
• She rarely is home at this time.
rosebuo se mora istaci da se prilozi neodredenog vremena upotrebljavaju iw
prezenta i preterita glagola "to be".
• He is always very busy. He nervous.
• We were generally working then. She is seldom out at eleven p.m.
• Who was sometimes with you?
• We were often together in this cinema.
• He was never at home when I called him.
d) Prilozi koji definiSu stepcll
Prilozi: too, quite, ratheJ; enough, Vel}', completely nacesce uptrebljavaju se kao
odrednica za pddjeve iii priloge i rijetko se koriste da poblize oznace glagole.
priloga enough svi Jrugi prilozi za iskazivanje stcpcna se upotrebliavaju ispred pridjeva
iIi priloga kog? odre(luju.
• I think it is too cold to go out now. This film is quite boring.
• That story is rather interesting. He spoke very well that night.
• The tailor made your suit quite badly.
• He opened the door very Quietly. Quite a few people have come today.
e) Prilozi za mjesto
Prilozi za mjesto se uglavnom upotrebljavaju na kraju recenice.
• We were waiting outside. Is my book on the shelf?
• Was he He has already gone
• They played in Sarajevo Did you meet him in the street?
.. We watch TV in the evening. She must be in her office.
Napomena: Ako u jednoj recenici fma vise priloga za mjesto onda se prilog za manje
mjesto upotrebljava prije priloga za vece mjesto.
• He lives ill a (own in. Bosnia.
• She was born in a village near Sarajevo.
• J used to live in New York.
192
t) Upotrcba viSe priloga
Aka je u jednoj tc istoj recenici upotrijebljcno vise pril.Q.gn, onda se primjenjuju poscbna
In-avila za njihova mjesto u toj rccenici. Rcdosljed upotrebe raz!icitih priloga u jednoj
recenici je:
a) prilazi za nacin,
b) prijozj za mjcsto,
c) prilozi za vrijeme.
Napomena: DvUe prethodne napomene date 0 redosljedu vise llpotrijebijenih pl'iloga
za vr{jeme i vi.se upot/'ijebUenih priloga za rnjesto vrijede i U ovom slucaju.
Dakle: prilog za manjll vrcmensku jedinicu prethodi prilogu za vecu
vremenslw jediniell iprilog Z(J manje '1?jesto prethod; prilogll za veee mjesto.
• Our troops stood.l1M (nacin), in their place (mjesto) all !he time, (vrijeme)
• They went.QJJ.i£kly (oatin) out of Om office (mjesto) when we came. (vrijeme)
• He came walking slowly (nacin), into our room (mjesto) at four o'clock, (vrijeme)
• She drove carefully (nacin) throngh the town (mjesto) last night. (vrijeme)
• Her brother was badly (nacin) injured at home (mjesto) yesterday. (vrijeme)
• I gladly (naein) accepted the oportunity to travel to London (mjesto) next month.
(vrijeme)
• My friend will come (nacin) to my place (rnjesto) tomorrow, (vrijeme)
• We were lmijillx (nacin) welcomed by our friends in their gardrn (rnjesto)
• yesterday
• They were extremely (l1aGin) surprised to see us (mjesto) at three in the
morning (vrijeme)
• We llSdlrly: (naCin) missed our train at the station (mjesto) yesterday moming.
(vrijeme)
Napomena: PoslOje izuzeci ad gornjeg pravila da se u recenici sa vise prifoga najprije
upotrebljava prilog za naCin, zatim z{( mjesto i za vrijeme. Uz glagole koji
ozn{(c'avqjll kretanje prilog za mjesto prethodi pl'ilogu za nacbt.
• He went home (mjesto) bv bus. (naCin).
• My friend came/rom Ne,,\-, York hv Diane. (naCin).
• We "pill go
g) Specificnosti 0 mjestu priloga
Relativno mali broj priloga ne sJijedi gornja pravila 0 mjestu njihove upotrebe. Po
tome Sll oni specificni pa ih je nllzno objasniti.
Enough upotrebljava se iza pridjeva i iza priloga.
o I think he is brave enough to do it. She is clever enough not to do that.
• I know him well el}Qjjgh, They don't go fast llliQ!!llh,
193
,. She doesn't reply quickly eoougb, He doesn't drive slowly euougb.
Kada se enough upotrebljava kao pridjev onda se upotrebljava ispred imenice koju
odreduje,
• We bought enough meat for our barbecue
.. She never has enough time but she has enough energy
.. We had enough food
Only moze se upotrijebiti na vise mjesta u recenici ali znacenje cijele recenice zavisi od
mjesta na kome je only upotrijebljeu.
• Qnbcl may ask him about it. (Samo ja ga smijem pitati i niko drugi),
• Qnl)c he will go there, (Samo on 6e iCi i niko drugi),
• We can m go there to see him.( I uikog drugog) IIi We can go there to see him
(Mozemo sarno otici. .. i uista drugo) .
.. I gave this book to him only. (Dao sam knjigu samo njemu i nikom drugorn)
• I Qlllx gave this book to him. (Samo sam mu dao knjigu ... i nisam mu pomagao).
• He only has to go there,( I uista drugo ue mora raditi).
Else koristi se iza zamjenica i priloga.
• Who going there with you?
• Can anybody do it?
• Nobody can help him right uow,
• Let's go somewhere
What would you like to tell me?
Somebody could go with me,
There is nothing
Too moze imati dva razliCita mjesta u recenici. Ako se upotrebljava ispred pridjeva u
zuacenju (previse premalo, prenisko itd.) onda se mora upotrijebiti neposredno
ispred pridjeva,
• He is lllll short. She is really lllll smart to do slIch a stllpid thing,
• Many books are 1lliLcxpensive.
Ako, medutim, .tQ.Q.... nije upotrijebljen ispred pridjeva da ga preciznije odredi, onda se
1.QQ...upotrebljava iza rijeci koju odreduje:
• He lQ.Q..wanted to go with us,
• I wanted to drink a bottle of beer 1QQ.
Also
You 1QQ must do it now .
They wanted to visit us :tQQ...
Prilog also moze biti upotrijebljen ispred ali i iza glagola koji pojasnjava. Nijanse
znacenja cijele recenice zavise i od mjesta na kome je also upotrijebljen.
• Als.o he is happy at the moment. (Takode i on je sretan ovog trenutka .. pored
drugih i on je sretan),
• She can als.Qbe happy at the moment. (Ona takode maze biti i sretna, ali uz to i
zadovoljna i raspolozena i vesela, .. ovog trenutka),
G We have ill.sQ been ta Paris. (Bili sma takode u Parizu ... pored d r u g i l ~ gradova).
(Znacenje zavisi ad naglasavanja rijeci) .
• Vie al.iill. have been to Paris. Takade i mi S1110 bili u Parizu ... pored drugih !judi).
(Znacenje zavisi ad naglasavanja rijeci).
Pravilna upotreba priloga, oCito, nije jednostavna vee i stoga sto postoje prilozi sa
razlicitim formalnim obilje±jima, prilozi koji su po [011111 identicni sa pridjevima ali
irnaju razlicite funkcije, prilozi sa dvostrukim oblicima, prilozi kod kojih znacenje
zavisi ad forme itd. Tome treba dodati i povelike poteskoee u vezl sa pravilnim
odabiranjem mjesta priloga u recenici.
195
VIll BROJEVI
Gramatika engleskog jezika
Kao i u nasem jeziku brojeve dijelirno na dvije velike skupine: na glavne i redne brojeve.
Glavni brojevi Rcdni hrojevi
1 one the first
2 two the second
3 three the third
4 four the fourth
5 five the fifth
6 six the sixth
7 seven the seventh
8 eight the eighth
9 nine the nintll
10 ten the tenth
11 eleven the eleventh
12 twelve the twelfth
13 thirteen the thirteenth
14 fourteen the fourteenth
15 fifteen the fifteenth
16 sixteen the sixteenth
17 seventeen the seventeenth
]8 eighteen the eighteenth
19 nineteen the nineteenth
Glavne brojeve od jedan do dvanaest mora se nauciti napamct. Od trinest do devctnest
brojevi se grade dodavanjem nastavka -tcen na odgovarajuci broj. ledini izuzetak je
broj petnaest, jer on se ne moze graditi na pomenuti na6in: broj petnaest dozivljava
odredene promjene, pa mu se ooda doda nastavak -teen.
Nacelno, redni brojevi od glavnih prave se dodavanjem nastavka -th na glavni broj,
ali od tog pravila ima i nekih izuzetaka. Redni brojevi the first, the second, the third
odstupaju od pravila 0 tvorbi rednih brojeva pa ih treba posebno zapamtiti. To isto vazi
i za os1ale podvucene redne brojeve: the Hfth, the ninth, the twelfth koji su doduse
nastali pomocu nastavka :ilL ali u bl'Oju oa koji se taj nastavak dodaje nastaju neke
dl1lge promjene. Brojevi five i twelve u rednom broju -ve u -f, zatim dobiju
nastavak -tho Nine gubi -e u rednom broju (the ninth). Eight dobija u rednom broju
sarno nastavak -h. (the eighth)
Pred svim rednim brojevima' obavczna jc upotreba odredenog clana ako pred njim
ne postoji neka druga odrednica (kao na primjer prisvojni pridjev my, his, our) itd.
Our first visit, his second child, my fifth chance itd).
199
Glavoi hrojcvi Rcdni brojcvi
20 twenty the twentieth
21 the
22 twenty -two tytcnt;t-sccond
23 twenty- three 111" twenty-third
24 twenty-four itd. the twenty-fourth itd.
30
t!li!:U
the thinieth
40 fony the fortieth
SO
!ill.x
the fiftieth
60 sixty the sixtieth
70 seventy the seventieth
80 eighty the eightieth
90 ninety the ninetieth
Glavni brojevi ad dvadeset do devedeset tvore se dodavanjem nastavka -ty na
odgovaraju6u deselicu. Pri tome podvuceni glavni brojevi dozivljavaju nckc promjene
u odnosu na bazni broj od koga su nastalc. Glavni broj fortx.-gubi u U odnosu na fou[ i
fourteen.
Redni brojevi od dvadeset do devedeset prave se dodavanjem nastavka -cth ali se
prethodno y promijeni u i,jer mu prethodi suglasnik. Podvuceni redni brojevi sadric
neke izuzetke pa ih treba posebno pamtiti.
Glavoi brojcvi
100 a hundred
101 a hundred and one
102 a hundred and two itd.
200 two hundred
300 three hundred itd.
321 three hundred (md twenty-one
350 three hundred and fifty
1000 a thousand
1005 a thousand and five
1000 000 a million
Redni brojevi
the hundredth
the hundred first
the hundred second itd.
the two hundredth
the three hundredth itd.
the three hundred and twenty- first
the three hundred and fiftieth
the thousandth
the thousand mld fifth
the millionth.
Kad se slozeni brojevi Citaju iii usmcno izgovaraju koristi se rijec and i.\jJred desetica,
a ako njih nema onda se to and govori ispred jedillica.
Ako sc ispred rijeci hundred thousruld i million upotriiebi neki broj (two, three five itd.)
onda se na te tri pomenute imenice u mnozini ne dodaje nastavak s.
(Two hundred dollars, six thousand and thirty pieces itd.). U tim okolnostima imenica
koja slijedi iza pomenutih brojeva dobija nastavak -so
Izrazi a hundred, a thousand, a million se najcesee llpotrebljavaju umjesto: one hundred,
one tholHiand, one million.
Ako se hllndred thousand million upotrijebe u mnozini II smis\u stotine, hiljademilioni,
dodaj e im se nastavka -8 kao i drugim imenicama u mnozini. Iza tih brojeva (hundreds,
thousands, millions) obavezna je upotreba prijedloga of.
(hundreds of students, thousands of books, millions of dollars).
Prilikom pominjanja godine u kojoj se nesto dogodilo uobicajeno je da se ne kazuje
imenica thousand vee se umjesto toga kazuju stotine. Tako se godine ]941, 1992 itd.
citaju (kazuju): in njneteen Olllndred and) forty one: in njnel'een (hundred and) ninety
two.
Ispred broja hundred upotrcbJjava sc prijcdlog "'in" kad se bro,icm iskazuju godinc.
Cesto, u govoru izostavi se imenica hundred pa se samo kaze: in nineteen forty one: in
nineteen ninety two ali ] 900. se mora kazati in nineteen hundred, dalde hundred se ne
moze izostaviti jer bi tada smisao bio promijenjen.
Datume treba iskazati najedan od elva naeina:
a) November the twenty fifth ( mjesec + the + redni broj)
b) The twenty fifth of November. (the + redni broj + of + mjesec)
Uobj¢ajeuo ie pisati datume May 1st.; May 2
nd
; May 3
rd
May 4th itd. ili jednostavno:
May I. May 2. May 3, May 4, May 10 itd.
Brojevi za ponavljanje: jecinom, dvaput, trip lit, cetiri puta, pet puta itd kazu se: once.
twice. three times. four tjmes. five times itd. Dakle broju se doda djee times iZllzev u
once i twice
Svakako je potrebno nauciti kazivati i Citati raziomke, decimalne brojeve, i OSllOVne
racullske radnje.
o se ¢ita kao zero. ili kao 0 (01l1 Kad se 0 nalazi u sklopu broja koji se odnosi ns
godinu uvijek se izgovara (cita) kao: ou: 1901, 1902, 1908.
201
Razlomci
cita se a.l.lill[ ili one half
a third pnc_Jhlrd
a fourth one fourth
".Jinh onc" fifth
a sixth one sixth
nne tenth Qnc over ten
[Qm tenths four over ten
twenty eight over forty six
three and a half iJi three and one half
eight and a sixth eight and one sixth
Pri kazivanju r8zlomaka moramo voditi racuna 0 cinjcnici da se brojilac upotrebljava
kao glavni broj a imenilac kao redni broj. Izuzelak ad ovog pravilaje citanje broja 1/2
(one hall).
Decimalni brojcvi
Decimalni brojevi iskazuju se upotrebom imeniee point: 5.8 (five point eight);
2.12 (two)2Q.inL one two); 0.15 (ou point one five);
Osnovne racunske radnje
Addition: 8 + 6 = 14
Subtract.ion: 8 ~ 6::::; 2
Multiplication: 8 x 6 = 48
Division: 48: 6 =8
202
eight plus six equalS (is makes. are) fourteen.
eight minus six equals (is. makes are) two.
eight times six (multiplied by six) equals (is, makes.
~ ) forty eight.
Forty eight divided by six equals (is. makes,are) eight
I
Citanje osnovnih matematskih izraza
a+b
a-b
axb
a.b
a:b
alb
a= b
ab / cd
an
a plus b
a minus b
a multiplied by b
a multiplied by b
a divided by b
a over b
a equals b; or a is equal to b
a times b over c times d; or all over cd
a to the nth, or a exponent n
three squared, three to the second (power)
five cubed; five to the third (power)
two to the power of six; two to the sixth.
Izrazi dva na kvadrat se kazuju: two squared, dva na treeu two to the third; iii two
cubed; dva na osmu: two to the eighth ili two to the power of eight itd.
203
IX PRlJEDLOZI
Gramatika engleskog jezika
Upatreba engleskih prijedloga veoma cesta odstupa od nase upotrebe. To je razlog da se
prijedlazirna mora posvecivati puna paznja. U okviru ave knjige bice tretirani sarno
najcesCi prijedlozi, narocito ani cUa se upotreba u vetoj rnjeri razlikuje od nase upotrebe.
Ceste Sll pogresne upotrebe engleskih prijedloga oak i kod !judi koji inace uspjeSno
komuniciraju na engleskomjeziku. To je posljedica razlika u upotrebi nasih i engleskih
prijedloga.
Sve engleske prijedloge moterno podijeliti u dvije skupine:
a) prosti prijedlozi: at, by, down, for, from, in, into, of, off, on, over, since, to, under,
until, up, upon, out, with, without itd.
b) slozeni prijedlozi: ahead of, along with, aside from, because of, except for, in addition
to, in front of, in spite of, instead of, next to, on account of, owing to itd.
PrijedIog ah.mJ1 ima vise znacenja ad kojih se neka podudaraju sa nekim nasim
prijedlozima, a cesto je aQQlJ1 upotrijebljen u sklopu neke frazeoloske cjeline pa, iii se
prevodi slobodnije iIi se ne prevodi. Najcesca znacenja ovog prijedloga su: u
neposrednoj blizini, vremenski okvir (.ab.uut midnight, at nhill.l1 this time), zauzetost
necim sto nepos red no predstoji (They know what they are illlmIt1 Ovaj se prijedlog
najcesce prevodi sa: 0 oko zbog otprjljke. u vezi sa po za jtd
• to speak about sombody. Do you speak ahm!t him?
(govoriti 0 nekom) We don't speak ahm!l you.
• to ask (to talk) allilliLsomething. I don't know what you are talking about.
(pitati 0, govoriti 0) ahm!l.
• to quarrel ahm!l
(svadati se zbog)
• to wander ahm!l (lutati po svijetu).
What are you quarreling about?
She wandered for six months about the
world.
• to have no opinion ahru!Lsornething. I have no opinion a.bmJ.t this issue.
(nemati rnisljenje 0 necemu)
• to make a fuss about smt. He made a big fuss ahm!l his salary.
(Digao veliku galamu zbog svoje plate)
Frazeoloska upotreba
• What's all this ahQut. 0 cemu se to radi?
• What illmut you? A ti ? ( I-loees iii neeeS?)
• I have my doubts ahm!l it. Sumnjam u to
207
• Be quick ill2.ill11 it. Pozuri s tim
• I am about to leave. Upravo odlazim
• He comcs illlQJ.lLnoon. (oko podn
• He beats illml!1 the bush.(On okoliSi),
• He wcnt abm.I1 his business as if nothing had happened.
Dati primjcri ilustruju raznovrSllost upotrebe ovogprijcdloga, ne samo u sklopu ustaUenih
fraza vee i u razlicitim kombinacijama kojima se iskazuje semanticka specii1cnost ovog
prijcdloga.
Prijedlog at: ima izrazito ml1ogo razlicitih llpotreba II cl1gieskol1l jezikll, Najces6e
upotrebljava se u priloskim oznakamaza mjesto i vrijeme. Raznovrsna su polja upotrebe
ovog prijedloga: odredenje U prostol'u (to stay ill a hotel; to be ill a party), naznaka
cilja radnjc (Aim ill the target; Creditors are at him again.), Vremcllsko odredenje (at
midnight) zauzetost poslom (l-Ie's ill work), s"ojstvo (He is good ill chess), odredeoo
stanje al{tivno iii pasivllO (at liberty;.at rest), Ilacin, uzrok, sredstvo (sold.at auction;
They laughed ill my joke; Act ill your own discretion), stepen, polozaj nn skali (The
temperature is ill3R degree C; He will retire ill 65) itd.
Mjcsto
He stayed i l l ~ . (n)
The plane landed at SarajeYQ (u)
He works at a museum, (clinic) (11)
His son is at school. (u)
1 was at the concert (lecture) (na)
\Ve were at a meeting. (ua)
Who was at the seaside? (na)
Meet me at the hotel. (kod)
I'll be at home tben. (lwd, 11)
We will meet at the Smiths.(kod)
WhQ will be at this table? (za)
I-Ie lives at 92 Main Street (u, na)
Vrijeme
We otten work ilLrlight. noell
She comes at midnight (nQon). (u)
Call me at seven o'clock. (u)
At the beginning of the session (ua)
We dQn't talk at breaktast. (u tQku, za)
She showed up at the same moment.(u)
He came at sunrise. pri, 11 toku
He could do it at the a ~ e of three, sa ..
You can come at any time u svako doba
I came at dawn (dusk) u zom, sumrak
Don't call me at night. Iloell
Orifo, prijedlog at ima razliCite mogucnosti upotrebe u engleskom jeziku pa ga
prevodimo na bosanskijezik veoma razliCito: u, na, kod, za, u toku, pri, sa itd., a nekad
ga ne mozemo ni prevesti adekvatno na nas jezik. Ta neprevodivost odgovarajucim
prijedlozima na nas jezik jos vise dolazi do izraZaja \J Ihzmna.
to be at hand bili pri ruci at lirst na pocetku, U PQcetku
f1.Ll.as.t najzad, napokon at times katkad, ponekad
to be angry at somebody. Ijut na good at sornthing. dobar 11 necemu
at my own expense 0 SV0111 trosku at a yearly rate po godisnjoj stopi
at such a price po toj cijeni at his command po njegovoj komandi
.aLall sasvim not at all ue nikako
to be ai.llJoss bUi zbunjen
at a speed of 80 km. bn:inom od
at peace with u miru s
to be at war biti u ratu
an expert at physics za fiziku
at the head of na celli
Look at him (her) l'ogledaj ga (ie)
to buy at a jcftino
al least barem.
at your request na Vase trazenje
odmah
l
smjesta
at the very !'bought pri samoj pomisli
at my cos1- ua moj trosak - stetu
Prijedlog.lu!.- takoder, cesto se upotrebljava u razlicitirn situacijama. Oznacava: mjesto
(He is standing m: the window,), vremensko odredenjc (m: night, laday), nacin (little
m: little, m: force), zaklinjanje (to swear m: God, to swear m: all that is holy), u skladu
sa normama ( He acted l2JLthe rules.; He called me m: name). uz racunske radnje
di,jcljenja mnozenja (ten multipliedm: four; nine dividedm: three), prostorne veliNne
(The room is four m: five meters), (ne)odobravanje (It's OKm: me, It's not OK m:me),
11 pasivnim reccnicama da odredi vrsiocH radnje itd. Na bosanski jezik prevodimo
ovaj prijedlog razlicilim prijedlozima: (kraj, pokraj, do, pored, mimo, duz, pri, prema,
po, za) iIi ga ne prevodimo.
Mje,to
Sit do, pored
She is sitting by the fire, uz vatru
He passed pored mene
I have it la= Imam to kod sebe
Vrijeme
We traveled danjll
to pay by the hour pl.cati po satll
Come m: five o'clock. do ..
lalbm- dot.da
dosada
by this time do tog trenutk.
Prijedlog by sa priloskim oznakama za mjesto i vrijeme najces6e se prevodi sa: do,
pored, uz, po) a vrlo cesto se taj pdjedlog i ne prevodi narocito u ustaljenim frazama.
by profession po zanimanju by his order po njegovoj naredbi
by merit prema zasluzi Wi11h po rodenju, rodenjem
drop by drop kap po kap to sell by the liter (kilo) n. 1. na kg,
to travel b.uar kolima. by train by bus vozom, autobusom
to take illJlluzeti z. ruku by a hair's breadth za dlaku
by all means svakako by chance slucajno
by heart napamet by no means nikako
He lives by himself sam to swear hyj}Qd zakleti se Bogom
little by little pomalo, polahko by the way usput receno
day by day dan za danom by my watch po mom satu
by accident slucaj no to take by surprise iznenaditi, zateci
Prijedlog fur takoder razlicito se upotrebljava pa tako razlicito i prevodi. Najces6a SU
mu znacenja: za, zbog, iz, na, od, uprkos, po a cesto se i ne prevodi jer je upotrijebljen
idiomatski iii frazeoloski.l'rijedlog for kazuje: svrhu (to look fur a book), zamjenll (to
209
leave Mary fuLAnn), smjer (to !cave fur Paris). povod (He was punished fur
murder), vrijeme ( He was sentenced fur life. I haven't seen you fur ages), odnos (as
fur me), prkos u znaceuju uprkos (fur all her large size, she moves gracefully) uzvik
(fur God's sake! Three cheers .fi:l.Lhim!), pogodba (Ifit were not iQLlllC, he would not
get this job.), nove ana naknada (You pay only ten dollars fur a hat), odllos grupa-
pojedinac ( EDr everyone that works, you will Hnd fiye that don't.)
I bought it E)r scbe
The homework for Fridav za petak
He was tried fur murder za ubistvo
to vote fur somebody glasati za nekog
thirst fur revenge teo: za osvetom
lilui!k Zll (n.) prodaju
He suffers zbog grijeha
She did it for love iz ljubavi
for example ua primjer
fur all that uprkos svemu
I was there fur a month mjcscc dana
fur the time being za sada
for good staino, zauvijck
once and fuL.alL jed nom za uvijek
fur my mother za mamu
Corne home for holidays. za praznike
I sold it fur ten dollars za 10 doJara
A lettcr for me? za mene
an eye for an eye oko za oko
fur unknown reasons iz nepoznatih ...
He went there fill:.1lyQ days. na 2 dana
to cry furjQy plakati od radosti
They will come for you po tebe
to go fur a walk iei u setnju
fur the present za sada
as for me sto se mene ticc
It's easy fu.Lhim to say Lahko je njemu reci
He can't see the forest.fur the trees od drveca ne vidi sumu
He has been waiting there fur hmlr.s.. ceka tamo satima
They stayed there fur three months. Ostali su tamo tri mjeseca.
Prijedlog Ii:JwL ima razlicitc upotrebe: dolazak iz pravea He came from the city),
oznacavanjc limita (a week fru.m today; That costs fr.Qm five to ten dollars), i1zicku
rllzdvojenost (It's a long way fr.Qm Mostar to Biha6),
zaSlita (She needs to be protected fr.Qm the sun.) ol.ksanje (relief from anxiety),
iskljucenost (That's far fr.Qm the tlUth.), os nov za zakljucivanje ( We could see this
from his behavior), izvor nasljedivanja (He inherited his talent fr.Qm his father.), uzrok
(She worked hard fr.Qm necessity). I ovaj prijedlog mora bili razliCito prevoden na
bosanski jezik: ad, iz, sa, po, zbog, izmedu, prativ.
He suffers fr.Qm somethingt. od ..
To protect fr.Qm stititi od
fr.Qm what you say po tom sta ..
frum Mostar to Sarajevo od
a letter fr.Qm mother od
Cheese is made fr.Qm milk od
frmn our sources iz nasih
He hides something fr.Qm me. Od mene
Where are you from? Odalde stc?
.fi:run far and near sa svih strana
fr.Qm five to eight od pet do '<cvet
frrun today on od danas
fuml the air iz vazduha
.frn.m Bosnia iz Bosne
to rdum frmn a concert sa
frmil above odozgo
from below odozdo
fmm under ispod
fr..Qll] afar izdaleka
firu:n on high s visoka, odozgo
judging ilmn sudcCi po
to watch from a window gledati sa
from before the war (od) prije
fillm outside spolja
frQ1ll within iZllutra
from behind straga, otraga
suspended from objesen na
Prijcdlog hUma vise razlicitih upotreba i stoga vise znacnja. On oznacava: iokaciju
(She was wounded in the leg. Have you seen that in the lake?), vremcnsko odredenje
(in the summer; in one hour), sredstvo (The letter was written in pencil.; all was bound
in leather), ograniccnjc (They are alike in some respects.; That was left in a hurry),
svrhu, razlog (He said that in reply), odnos prema grupi (one in six is eligible). Prevodi
se sa: tl, pod, za, na, od, za vrijeme, dok, l.lOutar, unutra, kod, zbog.
In crossing the street dokje ..
one i.nJ.enjedan (na od) deset
The plane landed in Mostar. u
in the field u pOljll
he was wounded in the leg. u
in the fall u jesen
in cold weather po hladnom ..
in my opinion po,
say it in English na engleskom
This is in the right place na
I'm in front of my house ispred
In the name of people u ime ..
in time pravovremeno,
in a way na neki nacin
in an hour za jedan sat
He stayed liLa hotel. u
She lives in Paris. u
Girls can serve in the mmy. u
in his youth 11 njegovoj mladosti
inMay II
in the rain (snow) po kisi (snijegu)
in two days za dva dana
in the country na selu
The stars are in the sky. na
I'll read this book in a week za
to be in step i6i u korak
in no way nilmlw
The U.S ,A. is a large country in. size. po veUNni
What do you have iILmind.? Sta Vam je na omll?
We did not believe he had it i.n...h.im... Nismo vjerovali da ima tu sposobnost.
Prijedlog like ima nekoliko razlicitih znacenja i on izrazava: slicnost (His house is
a hotel.; It's likl: when we were kids), tipicnost (It was likl: him to do that), pribliznos!
(It costs fifty dollars.) porcdcnjc (He acts likl: a fool), prcdvidan.ie (It looks likl:
rain). Ovaj prijedlog prevodimo sa: kaa, takav, da, oalik na, sliean, paput.
Don't talk like that. tako
It looks rain. Izgleda da ce kisa
She wasn't likl: that. Nije bila takva.
What is he likl:? Kakav je covjck?
That is just him, On jc bas takav.
She looked it likl: death kao, poput
He behaves likl: a child. kao
He doesn't act that.Tako on ne radio
father son kakav .. takav
211
He felt l.i.k£ traveling to London. On bi da putuje .. , prohtjelo mu se da
He felt l..i1& having a good time. Htjelo 111U se da sc prove de.
He looks just lli his brother. Izgleda upravo kao njegov brat. LiN 5V0Il1 •.
Pri.iedlog ill kazuje genitiv rijeci ispred koje stoji, porijcklo (He comes ill a good
family), m,jcsto (south Qf Mostar) materiju (gradu) (This is made Qi' gold,), svojstvo
(posjcdovanjc) (blind Qi' an eye), mjcru, (a pound Qi'chcese), uzrok (He did it out Qf
charity),
He is a friend Qf.mine. moj prijatelj the Tower Q.[ London Londonska kula
The color Qithe wall boja zida a man ill courage hrabar covjek
It's Q[no value to nema vrijednosti a glass ill water casa vode
a piece Q[meat komad mesa He is one clthcm jcdan od njih
My letter cl August 2"d. od 2. a group ill 35 students od
He died Qfhunger. od gladi That's nice Qihim, Lijepo od njega.
To hear (think) Q.[ something. 0 to be in need ill something. potreba za
all Q[ a sudden iZIlenada Q[ course nanlVno
There is plenty Qf room dosta prostora It was Q[no use nije nista koristilo
He is proud uihis action. On se ponosi svojim djelovanjcm.
He is proud Q,f his SOIL POllosi se svojim sinom.
Which Qf these two books is yours. Kojc je tvoja knjiga od ove dvije?
Navedeni primjeri pokazuju da se u I11nogo slucajeva nije mogao upotrijebiti nijedan
nas prijedlog, jednostavno stoga sto !1emamo pravu prijedlosku zamjenu. Naravno, u
takvim slucajevima se potrazi drugo desenje bez upotrebe nasih prijedloga.
Prijcdlog lill oznacava: fizicku razdvojcnost (a path lilllhe main walk; His shop is
jLlst QJI.the main street. Take it QiIlhe table.), ohjekt radnjc (He borrowed a hundred
dollars QiI him), odsustvo sa duznosti (lill duty), odust.janje od ustaljenih navika
(He is Qffliquor. She is QfIdrugs.), rezultat ispod mogucnosti (u sportn) (He is QfIhis
game).
Ovaj se prijedlog prevodi sa: po, van, odatle, dalje, od, sa.
It fell illI a tree. sa drveta Is she Q.[f duty? van duznosti
He lives Qff his sa [my. od Keep Qff the grass. Ne hodaj po
Two miles Q.ff the town od The plane rose Q.[f the runway. sa
Get Qff my toot. sa He jumped Qff the horse. sa
The slales raIl off the roof Crijep pada s krova.
This path leads uffthe main road. Ova staza se odvaja od glavnog puta.
Postoji i frazeoloska upotreba ovog prijedloga, sto ce potvrditi sljedeci primjerL
212
illfthe record u povjcrcnju, nczvanicno
Now, tell me something about it, Q[f the record.
She is Qff this medicine now, ne uzima sad taj Jijek.
Cut a piece off the loaf. Otkini paree vekne (struee).
You are a long way off from understanding this problem. ni bUzu
Prijedlog 011 izrazava: lociranost na povrsini (The book is un the table.;The fly
landed on the ceiling. She has a cut Qllher finger.); lociranost u prostoru (The garden
is Qll the side of the house. He is on the bus.); nacin (He stood on one foot. They live on
a pension.); raspolaganje ncCim (She has some money Q1l her. He had a knife Qll him.);
vremensld olnrir (The parade is Qll Sunday. Qn..arriving home 1 fonnel your letter. Cash
QIl delivery); sredstvo. (She lives ill.l vegetables,); stnnjr (The is Qlllil'e,) Prcvodi
se sa: na, za, u, nakon, po, o.
Mjesto: na
The book is on the table. na
He is on the roof of his house
He is riding on horseback.
He hit his head on the Ooor.
Is my shirt on the chair?
I-lis books are on the shelf.
We are Qll the right track. ua
On hearing this.. clIvsi
Vri,iemc
They will come on my birthday. nn
Please come to my home on Saturday. u
I-Ie went to his office on his arrival. po
On that day he stayed at home. toga
She came on a dark night. u, po
Qn receipt po prijemu
Ovaj prijedlog upotrebljava se veoma eesto lJ frazcoloskim strukturama radi izrazavanja
vise razlieitih znaeenja,
• He is still on a diet. On je jos uvijek na diieti.
• They eat no meat, they live on vegetables. Oni zive 0 povrcu.
• The baby feeds Q!l mille Beba se hrani mlijekom.
• The whole house Cijela kuca gori.
• Who is illl.Ji.illy today? dezurni
• We had loss Qll..loss at that time, Gubitak za gubitkom
• This drink Ja platam ovo pice. Pice je na moj racun.
• We go to schooIIlJl.iilll.l pjcske
Prijedlog over kazuje: polozaj (The bird flew =r the lake.) hijerahiju u vlasti (Ask
those him,), neciju naamoc, supcriornost ( She has a big lead over the others.),
odstupanje od normi i neslagan,ie (He passed over the governor's veto.), objekat (She
laid a blanket = her child. He hit her head. He fell = the edge.), prostor
(She showed me over the house), razlomke ( three over five .. tri kroz pet), sredstvo ( I
213
heard it over the radio.), vremcnski period (Q.Yk( the past 25 years; Stay ~ Sunday.)
razlog te'koca (She had a lot of trouble = money).
Ovaj se prijedlog prevodi sa: nad, iznad, preko, pri, po. za vrijeme, kod, zbog.
a victOlY Q.Y£I 5mb. pobjeda nad The plane was t1ying...Q.Y.e£ us. iZllad
~ the door lind, iznad D..Y£I night prcko noCi
Q.YkLa glass of wine pri 6asi vina CbLcr. Prijem.
to jump ~ the fence preskociti all over the world po cijelom svijetu
I t ' s ~ . Gotovo je, zavrseno je. .m:g,: the past month tolwm
There is nothing left QY.e.r. Nista nije prcostalo
Q.Y.ld: and above povrh svega
The water spilled QEr the floor. Voda se prosula po podu.
The water will be =' his head .. preko
Prijedlog t!!... Pored upotrebe za dativ ovaj prijedlog oznacava i mjesto (He pressed
her tQ his heart - na syoje .. Ii'om head to foot ~ ) broj iii koliNnu (They killed all
ill a man - ~ ~ . His debts amount ill 3000 dollars dosczu iznose) vrijeme
(He lived from ill illL...QQ :Lodnos i pripadanje (a secretary.ill a university professor.
We had the whole big house tQ ourselves) poredenje (Compared tQ that I went through
... u poredenju) IIamjcru (I did it tQ help him ... iliLmu pomognem), djclovanjc (He
drank himself ill death - do smrti itd.
Prijedlog to se prevodi sa: u, za, na, do, prcma, pred, sa itd. iii se i ne prevodi.
I-Ie goes tQ school. U
She is married ill John, udata za
He is sentenced 1Q death. ml
from top ill bottom ad dna do vrha
froJll Monday ill Friday do
to be kind ill somebody prcma
His chances are one 1Q five. prema
They played!.cLa full house. pred
I wrote a letter to him. Njemu
tQ and fro tamu - amo
from head tQ foot do pete
up ill the present sve do sada
He is brother tQ Mr. Smith. g. Smitov
We traveled ill London. u
He went ill a concert. na
myoUl" health. na, u vase zdravljc.
Its five minutes 1Q five. do
up to a few years ago do pdje nekoliko
We won two ill one. prcma
He got married to Azra. Ozenia se sa
Count to ten. do
Talk 1Q. me. Razgovaraj sa mnom.
He is a secretary to a woman jedne
armed 1Q the teeth naoruzan do zuba
Give it 1Q him. njcrnu
They starved tQ death. do
• She lived ill a great age. Dozivjela je duboku strarost.
214
_Prijedlog under jc jedan od engleskih prijedloga koji ima vise upotreba i znaci: polozaj
ispoel (under the table; under sunny skies), zasticenost, sl(fovitost (He escaped !lnder
cover of darkness.), podredenost po rangu (u sluibi) (He served lJllC.!!d general Smith),
uslove ( under the tenns of the contract; !J.1l.dcr the legal age), prinudu (!J11d.e.r pressure;
llll.Ckr the influence of alcohol), naslov (lJllC.!!d this heading) itd.
Ovaj se prijedlog prevodi sa: pod, ispod, za vrijeme (u doba), prema, u smislu, na
temelju, u skladu sa.
~ r arms pod oruzjem under oath pod zakletvom
under fire pod vatrom lJ.n.ds:r lock and key pod kljucem
under pressure pod pritiskom under supervision pod nadzorom
He got under the car. Zavukao se pod He sat down under the tree. pod
J.lllikr the protection pod zastitom The book fell ~ r the table. ispod
l.l.lld.cr ] 8 years old ispod lJ.Il.d.tl the normal price ispod cijene
~ a false. name pod laznim I am ~ the impression imam utisak
under an hour manje ad under construction II izgradnji
under this project U okviru l!D..ill:r his rule za, u vrijeme vladavine
The cat jumped under the chair. under this law po tom zakonu
He works!J.lli!cr great"difficulties uz velike teskoce
They escaped under cover of darkness pobjegli skriveni rnrai{Qrn.
under these rules prerna, u sIdadu sa ovim pravilima
Under present conditions no change is possible. u sadasnjim okolnostima
The temperature is under the average today. ispod prosjeka
llim the terms of the contract prema zahtjevima ovog ugovora
to sell something .un.dIT the counter prodavati ispod tezge (krisomJ
That bridge is still .1J..ll.dcr construction. Jos llvijek se gradi.
Pried log with: oznaeava: zajednicku aktivnost (rad) (She comes with her husband.
He works with his father. They were with their brother.),raskid, razlaz, Ijutnju (She
broke with her family. Mike is angry with his daughter.), nacin (our country is on ftiendly
terms with almost all other countries.), irnati (nernati) uticaja na (He no longer has
any influence Wfu them.), podrsku i slaganjc (I agree .Yii.th you: this painting is a
forgety. If he is for lower taxes, I'm Wfu him. She stooel well W.th all her classmates.),
sredstvo ( He hit her lYilh a roek. He is threatened lYilh divorce.), razlog (pale lYilh
anger; sick with fcar), nacin (She ran ffi1h effOlt.; He was sitling with his hat on. He
came W1h good news), karakteristicuu zalwuitost (The pressure varies with depth.),
ohiljefje osoha (a person W.th a sharp nose; a girl with a nice smile), vremensku
koincidenciju (With the outbreak of the war, they left the country.), zbivanje uprkos
(He is really a loveable man W1h all his stubbornness.).
215
Ovaj prijcd!og prevodil1lo sa: kod, od, protiv, zbog, radi, u drustvu, llZ, i pored, uprkos.
away 'vvith you nosi se
with pleasure sa zadovoljstvom
pale with fear b\ijcd od straha
stiff with cold ukoccn ad
to quarrel with svadati s(' sa
to work illlh raditi sa
to fight lliili boriti se protiv
with raised arms podigllutih ruku.
to part wi1lLmoney rastati sc od, sa
I have no money with me. kod sebe
\Vhat do you want .lY.@ me? od mene
She wept lYith joy. plakala od radosti
He is in with her. sklona rnu je
She is down with fever. lma groznicu
ro.ili enthusiasm sn odusevljenjcm
to tremble with fear od straha
with bowed head pognute glave
The whole countly is with this president. uz tog predsjcdnika
They succeeded with my advice. Uspjeli su zbog mog savjeta.
She came in with a nice smile. sa lijepim osmijehom
with no end in sight bez izgleda na zavrsetak
to strike somebody W1ll a stick. udariti nekog stapom
to charge with murder optuziti za ubistvo
Od veceg broja slozenih prijedloga ovdje treba pomenuti samo slozeni prijedlog out
of zato sto on ima raznoliku upotrebu. On oznacava: pravac kretanja (He walked Q1!1
Qfthe room.), promjenu stanja (Wake up illl.LQfa deep sleep.), stal1je izvan ogranicenja,
oeekivaoja (QJJLQfpractice; He is out uf control); sredstvo (built QJJLQflumber;) razlog
(They came ill!LQf feaL) odoos prem. grupi (Only two ill!LQf seven survived). Ov.j
prijedlog prevodimo sa:od, van, iz, bez, preko, kroz, izvan.
He is illl.LQf reach van dometa We are .llilLQf danger now. (iz)van op.
to go ill!Ul.f a room iei iz sobe to do something Q1l1.Qf pity iz sazaljenja
illl.LQf hatred iz rnrznje They were Q.lJ..LQ.f money. ostali bez n.
out ofttlrIJ reda He jumped illl.LQ.fthe window. kroz
She is Q!!LQfher mind. Poludjehl je. The book is Qill ..J2.fprint. rasprodata
Q.lJlQf curiosity iz radoznalosti We are Q1!LQf soda. Nestalo l1amje sode.
That is Q1!1.QJ question. Ne doInzi U obzir.
The area is ill.lLQ.f touch with the world odsjecen od svijeta
to settle the case illli...Qf COUli rijesiti slucaj bez suda
Wake up ill!LQf deep sleep. Probudi se iz dubokog sna.
Three Q.lILQf len people don't want (0 do it. Tri od deset !judi ...
This furniture is made QJJLQf wood. od drveta
The rebels are Q..1.!LQ.f controL izvan kontrole
Od velikog broja prijedloga koji se upotrebljavaju u engleskom jeziku ovdje Stl tretirani
samo oni koji imaju veoma raznoliku upotrebu, pa stoga zahtijevaju posebnu paznju.
Narocita paznja je posvecena onim prijediozima koji odstupaju Qd upotrebe na5ih
priiedloga i koji su stoga izvor pogreSne !lpotrebe.
2J(,

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